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authority records

Conference of Allied Ministers of Education

  • Corporate body
  • 1942-1945

As early as 1942, in wartime, the governments of the European countries, which were confronting Nazi Germany and its allies, met in the United Kingdom for the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME). The Second World War was far from over, yet those countries were looking for ways and means to reconstruct their systems of education once peace was restored. Very quickly, the project gained momentum and soon took on a universal note. New governments, including that of the United States, decided to join in.

By midsummer 1943, the work of the Conference grew to such an extent that re-organization was necessary. From the discussion about the re-organization of the Conference, it came out that one of the objects of the reconstituted CAME would be to consider plans for the formation of a permanent organization for promoting cooperation in educational matters in the post-war period. This organization should first be confined to the United Nations, and should then - after the war - grow into an international organization.

The decision of CAME to promote the foundation of a United Nations Organization for Educational and Cultural Reconstruction found a profound echo in the public. The League of Nations Union expressed the hope that the new organization would develop into a General International Organization for education which would provide the moral and intellectual basis of the peace.

The decision was taken to convene an extraordinary Conference, which would be attended by the participating countries on an equal footing with one vote for each, for the purpose of agreeing on the creation of an international organization that would take charge of educational and cultural concerns during the reconstruction period: the United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF).

Álvarez-Laso, María del Pilar

  • Person

"UNESCO’s Social and Human Sciences Sector will be headed by Maria del Pilar Alvarez-Laso of Mexico. The new Assistant Director-General is currently Director of Projects at the Latin American Institute for Educational Communication in Mexico City. Her distinguished career includes both social science research positions and media and communications responsibilities, notably as the Editorial Coordinator at the Mexican Television Institute. Ms Alvarez-Laso set up Mexico’s first satellite educational television channel. She has championed human rights in Latin America" (UNESCO, Press Release 2010-043).

Falt, Eric

  • Person

"The new Assistant Director-General for the Sector for External Relations and Cooperation will be Eric Falt of France, who is currently Director of the Outreach Division of the United Nations Department of Public Information. Mr Falt’s UN career as a spokesman and head of information services has taken him to many countries in post-conflict situations, including Cambodia, where he was spokesman for the United Nations Transitional Authority and Iraq, where he was in charge of information in the United Nations Office of the Humanitarian Coordinator for Iraq. He has also worked for the United Nations in Haiti, Pakistan and Kenya" (UNESCO, Press Release 2010-043).

Ribes, Khadija

  • Person

"UNESCO’s Administration Sector is to be headed by Khadija Ribes of Tunisia. Currently Director-General in charge of the civil service and administration development in the Office of the Prime Minister of Tunisia, the new Assistant Director-General for Administration has led a series of administrative reform initiatives in her country. Several of these reforms have been undertaken in cooperation with the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme. Ms Ribes, a specialist in e-governance, has worked to introduce such measures as the introduction of public/private partnerships, the simplification of administrative procedures and manuals, the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in administration and results-based management" (UNESCO, Press Release 2010-043).

Director General of UNESCO

  • Corporate body

The first Director-General of UNESCO was Julian Huxley. Since its inception, UNESCO had been headed by 10 Director-General, coming from the United Kingdom, Mexico, the United States, France, Senegal, Italy, Spain, Japan and Bulgaria. Since 2009, the Bulgarian Irina Bokova serves as UNESCO first female Director-General.

UNESCO Dakar Office

  • Corporate body
  • Since 1970

Established in 1970 to address educational planning issues in Africa South of the Sahara, BREDA, over years, extended its fields of action so much that it now covers not only other education sub-sectors but deals also with other areas of competence of the Organization: Science, Social
Sciences, Culture and Communication.

UNESCO Liaison Office in Washington

  • Corporate body
  • May 1978 - March 1986

The UNESCO Liaison Office in Washington opened in May 1978 and closed down on March 31, 1986, in consequence to the withdrawal of the United States from UNESCO.

Between 1963 and 1965 there had already been a Liaison Office in Washington which mainly served to establish a co-operation programme between UNESCO and the World Bank. In 1965 this office had been transferred to the New York Liaison Office.

Ben Barka, Lalla Aïcha

  • Person

"The new Assistant Director-General for UNESCO’s Africa Department will be Lalla Aïcha Ben Barka of Mali, who is currently the Deputy Executive Secretary of the United Nations’ Economic Commission for Africa. Ms Ben Barka was Director of UNESCO’s Regional Bureau for Education in Africa, from 2004-2007. In the course of her career, she has contributed to the development of the education systems of twelve West African countries, including her own, Mali. Ms Ben Barka has also collaborated with a number of foundations that work for African development, including the Mo Ibrahim Foundation and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada)" (UNESCO, Press Release 2010-043).

UNESCO Staff Associations

  • Corporate body
  • 1947-

The first Staff association of UNESCO (STA) was established in 1947. For the first 35 years of UNESCO existence, this organisation was the only association officially recognized by the Administration as representative of the UNESCO's staff.
In 1981 another staff association emerged: the ISAU (International Staff Association of UNESCO). Both associations, the STA and ISAU represent all different groups of UNESCO Staff members and have the same functions and activities.
In 1995/96 the STA changed its name from UNESCO Staff Association into UNESCO Staff Union (STU) in order to respond to a demand of FICSA (Federation of International Civil Servants' Associations). Despite the change of name, the organisation and activities of the associations stayed the same.

Over the years, there have been several attempts to divide the existing two staff associations in order to create associations who would be responsible for only the General or Professional Staff. But none of these attempts have been successful or would have been recognized as representative for UNESCO Staff.

In 1991, a new kind of association emerged: the AFUS (Association of former UNESCO Staff) who deals with all kind of questions concerning the former Staff members of UNESCO.

UNESCO Asian Regional Institute for School Building Research

  • Corporate body
  • 1962-1973

The Asian Regional Institute for School Building Research (ARISBR) was organized through the cooperation of UNESCO and the Government of Indonesia to assist in solving the school building problems in the Region. It was created in Bandung in late 1962 with the expectation to last for ten years. On 1 January 1965, the President of Indonesia announced that Indonesia is withdrawing from the United Nations and most of its agencies, one of which was UNESCO. This meant that ARISBR had to be located in another country and was temporarily moved to Bangkok, on 1 June 1965. It finally moved to Colombo, Sri Lanka and closed its door in 1973.

UNESCO Bangkok Office

  • Corporate body
  • Since 1961

The UNESCO office in Bangkok was established in 1961 as the Asian Regional Office for Primary and Compulsory Education. The Office was later extended to cover all divisions of the education sector and the countries of the Pacific region.
Further growth included the incorporation of activities relating to the culture, communication, and social and human science sectors, which led to the eventual renaming of the office as the Principal Regional Office for Asia and Pacific (PROAP) in 1987.
At the beginning of 2002, the UNESCO office in Bangkok assumed two roles. As the Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, it is the technical advisory body to all field offices and Member States of the region and the site of regional programmes in most areas covered by the Education Sector.
As the cluster office, the UNESCO office in Bangkok is also the principal coordinator of UNESCO activities, across sectors, in the Mekong region - directly in Thailand, Myanmar and Lao PDR and indirectly in support of UNESCO country offices in Viet Nam and Cambodia.
UNESCO Bangkok also houses regional advisory units in Culture and Social and Human Sciences and staff from the Communication and Information Sector and the Science Sector.
In 2007, Singapore joined UNESCO as the 193rd Member State and become a member of UNESCO Bangkok cluster office.


  • Corporate body
  • Since 1972

UNESCO-CEPES (the European Centre for Higher Education/Centre Européen pour l'Enseignement Supérieur) was established in September 1972 with a view to promoting co-operation in higher education among Member States of the Europe Region (the countries of Europe, North America, and Israel). The creation of such a centre was recommended at the Sixteenth Session of the General Conference of UNESCO which was held in the autumn of 1970. Specifically, in November of that year, the Government of Romania officially invited UNESCO to set up the Centre in Bucharest. The Director-General accepted the offer in principle, pending the outcome of negotiations relative to the legal basis and the conditions under which the Centre would be housed and would operate. These conditions were spelled out in an Accord de siège signed on 12 June 1972 and in an Annex to this Accord signed on 21 September 1972.

UNESCO Regional School Building Center for Latin America and the Caribbean

  • Corporate body
  • 1963-1984

In 1961, UNESCO established an educational facilities section at Headquarters and three regional school building centres in Africa, Asia, and in Latin America and the Caribbean, in parallel to the educational policy and planning units. To strengthen the multidisciplinary approach of educational projects, in 1973 the Asian and African regional centres, as well as the policy and planning units, were integrated into the Regional Offices for Education. However, the Educational Building Centre for Latin America and the Caribbean (CONESCAL), established in Mexico in co-operation with the Organization of American States continued to function until 1984.

Engida, Getachew

  • Person

"The new Deputy Director-General will be Getachew Engida, who is currently UNESCO’s Comptroller and Deputy Assistant Director-General for Administration. Mr Engida, of Ethiopia, has had a distinguished international career in auditing and financial management for prominent international companies and also worked for the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) as Assistant Comptroller. He joined UNESCO in his current position in 2004" (Press Release No.2010-43, UNESCO).

Karklins, Janis

  • Person

"The new Assistant Director-General for UNESCO’s Communication and Information Sector will be Janis Karklins of Latvia. Currently Latvian Ambassador to France and Permanent Delegate to UNESCO, after an initial career in industry, Mr Karklins became the Permanent Representative of his country at the United Nations in Geneva. As a diplomat, he was closely involved in the preparation of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) and played a key role in its negotiations on internet governance. In 2006, Mr Karklins was elected president of the Government Advisory Committee of ICANN (Internet Corporation of assigned Names and Numbers), which plays a pivotal role in information society issues" (UNESCO, Press Release 2010-043).

Conference of the Establishment of UNESCO

  • Corporate body
  • 1 to 16 November 1945

The United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London from 1 to 16 November 1945. Scarcely had the war ended when the conference opened. It gathered together the representatives of forty-four countries. Spurred on by France and the United Kingdom, two countries that had known great hardship during the conflict, the delegates decided to create an organization that would embody a genuine culture of peace. In their eyes, the new organization must establish the “intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind” and, in so doing, prevent the outbreak of another world war.

At the end of the conference, thirty-seven countries founded the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

UNESCO Field Offices, Institutes and Centres

  • Corporate body
  • 1946-

The first General Conference decided in 1946 to establish four Science Co-operation Offices in China, India, Middle East and Latin America. These offices were set up in 1947 and the network of what were later to be called “regional offices” has been extended ever since to cover all regions in the world. After 40 years of existence, in 1986, there were 27 offices of UNESCO Representatives, 2 Regional Coordinators and 23 Regional and Sub-Regional Advisers. In 2009, about 700 staff members work in UNESCO's 58 field offices around the world.

In addition to regional offices, UNESCO has helped to set up or supported otherwise numerous Centres with an international or regional character, and also centres and institutes working on the national basis, in agreement with the host country or countries or the region.
From the very beginning, UNESCO’s presence in the Field was also assured by temporary missions sent out from Headquarters or Field offices. They consisted either of a team of experts and consultants or individuals, who travelled to Member States upon their invitation to study questions in UNESCO’s competence, to work on the execution of a development project and formulate recommendations to be addressed to the Governments in the name of UNESCO.

In 1961, the Executive Board decided to designate posts of UNESCO Chiefs of Mission to be counterparts to Resident Representatives of the Technical Assistance programmes and to co-ordinate and be responsible for all UNESCO projects in a country (60 EX/Dec.9.1). In 1976, these posts were changed into UNESCO Representatives: they were usually responsible for a group of countries or a subregion. In the budget for 1981-1983 posts of “Regional Co-ordinators” were established, who were to be high-level officials responsible for a whole region. The post was tied usually with the post of the Director of a Regional Office.

Since 1951, but especially during the 1970ies, the Regional Offices were developed in a multidisciplinary direction since posts of regional or sub-regional advisors were attached to them in field which were not originally in the competence of the Office in question.

Since 1970, when the General Conference adopted a resolution on it (16 C/Res.10), decentralization became a constant subject of debate. UNESCO's decentralization policy seeks to ensure that UNESCO designs and implements programs that, although global in scope, are adapted to the needs and specific circumstances of Member States. UNESCO's Decentralization Action Plan groups Member States for service by a global network of multi-disciplinary Cluster Offices, National Offices, Regional Bureaus and Liaison Offices. The Bureau of Field Coordination is responsible for ensuring the smooth implementation of this new field network and provides a clear, single line of management.

Intergovernmental Bureau of Informatics

  • Corporate body
  • 1961-1988

The Intergovernmental Bureau of Informatics was created, with the name International Computation Center, under the auspices of the United Nations and UNESCO by an international Convention signed on December 6, 1951 in Paris. The Resolutions concerning the establishment of this body were taken by the United Nations and UNESCO in 1946, 1948, 1950 and 1951. The International Computation Center was transformed in three stages (1969-70: reorganization, 1971-72: consolidation, and from 1978 on expansion). into the IBI in order to react to the technological evolution in the field.
The IBI had 38 member states which were members either of the United Nations, or of UNESCO, or of one of the other Specialized Agencies of the United Nations.
At its sixth extraordinary session, held in Rome on 28 and 29 November 1988, the General Assembly, by resolution R.6E/09 decided that IBI would cease to exist as from 30 November.
Dissolution had been made inevitable due to a series of difficulties encountered by IBI with regard to both its programme activities and its own organizational management and administration. These difficulties led to the successive withdrawal of several Member States from 1985 onwards, in particular the three main contributors (France, Spain and Italy) which deprived IBI of all its funding. Lacking resources, and in the throes of an unprecedented administrative crisis, with a temporary Board of Management acting as a Directorate, IBI was dissolved after 26 years spent in promoting co-operation in informatics.

UNESCO Jakarta Office

  • Corporate body
  • Since 1951

The Office was established in 1951 as the UNESCO Field Office for Southeast Asian Science Co-operation (SEASCO). In 1967, it became the Regional Office for Science and 1967 Technology for Southeast Asia (ROSTSEA). In 1993, it was renamed the UNESCO Jakarta Office in keeping with the house-wide policy on office names.
In 2001, the UNESCO Office in Jakarta became Regional Science Bureau for Asia and the Pacific, and Office of the UNESCO Representative to Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines
In 2002, the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (East Timor) signed the Instrument of Acceptance for Membership of UNESCO (31 October 2002).

UNESCO Venice Office

  • Corporate body
  • Since 1973

Following the disastrous floods of 1966 in Venice and Florence and the Italian Government's invitation one year later for UNESCO to play an international action, the Liaison Office for the Safeguarding of Venice was established in 1973 on the occasion of the UNESCO International Campaign for the Safeguarding of Venice.
UNESCO Scientific Co-operation Bureau for Europe (SC/BSE) was established in 1972 as a separate unit attached to the office of the Assistant Director General for Sciences of UNESCO's Secretariat in Paris. In 1988, following the proposal of the Italian Government to host and support the activities of the Bureau for Scientific Co-operation, the Bureau was relocated to Venice, Italy and renamed as Regional Office for Science & Technology for Europe(ROSTE).
Thanks to the substantial financial and logistical support provided by the Italian National Research Council (CNR) on behalf of the Italian Government, UNESCO ROSTE started its activities in 1989.
Ten years later, within the frame of UNESCO's field strategy set out in the Decentralization Action Plan, UNESCO Bureau in Venice was renamed Regional Bureau for Science in Europe while maintaining its acronym ROSTE.
In 2002, UNESCO established a single office in Palazzo Zorzi with the mandate to achieve UNESCO’s and Member States’ goals in the fields of science and culture.
In order better to reflect the scope of action of the UNESCO Office in Venice and after consultation with the Italian Government, UNESCO Director General on 27 March 2006 decided that this Office will henceforth be named the “UNESCO Office in Venice - UNESCO Regional Bureau for Science and Culture in Europe” (BRESCE).

Kalonji, Gretchen

  • Person

"The new Assistant Director-General in charge of the Natural Sciences Sector will be Gretchen Kalonji of the United States of America. Currently Director of International Systemwide Research Development at the University of California’s Office of the President, Ms Kalonji’s international career in materials science and educational transformation has taken her to university positions in France, Japan and China. She has also worked with several African universities and is fluent in Kiswahili and Lingala. Ms Kalonji helped to establish a science and health initiative linking partners in East Africa with the University of California" (UNESCO, Press Release 2010-043).

Bandarin, Francesco

  • Person

"The new Assistant Director-General for Culture will be Francesco Bandarin of Italy. Mr Bandarin is currently Director of UNESCO’s World Heritage Centre, having taken up this position with UNESCO in 2000. As a specialist in architecture and urban planning, Mr Bandarin previously worked in both public and private institutions in the fields of built heritage, cultural heritage conservation, environmental heritage and cultural events, as well as architectural and urban design in developing countries. As Director of the World Heritage Centre, Mr Bandarin has led the development of a vast network of public private partnerships for World Heritage conservation, as well as the development of a series of regional category II centres in every part of the world" (UNESCO, Press Release 2010-043).

Intergovernmental Bureau for Informatics. Administration and Finance Department

  • Intergovernmental Bureau for Informatics
  • Corporate body
  • 1962-1988

The Department of Administration and Finances oversaw the organization's administration activities linked to human resources as well as its financial activities, including the offices of the Comptroller and the Treasury. The Department was also responsible for overseeing the general services of the Organization. The Department existed since the beginning of the organization until its liquidation (1961 to 1988). For most of its existence, Corrado Ferantelli was its Director.

FIDI - Fond de l'IBI pour le développement de l'informatique

  • Corporate body
  • 1980

Le fonds de l'IBI pour le développement de l'informatique (FIDI) fut un projet énoncé par le directeur général de l'IBI, Fermin Bernasconi, à l'occasion de la 10ème session ordinaire de l'Assemblée générale de l'organisation. Le projet consistait en la création d'un fond permanent destiné à financer et l'accord de prêts à taux avantageux aux pays en voie de développement, pour la réalisation de projets informatiques. Il fut demandé au directeur général de l'IBI la présentation d'un rapport sur la création de cette institution, présenté à l'Assemblée générale suivante.

Le projet prévoyait notamment un statut d'indépendance du fond vis-à-vis de l'IBI.

Il fut rédigé un projet de status et de réglement du FIDI.

Le FIDI demeura à l'état de projet et ne fut jamais opérationnel.

UNESCO. Natural Sciences Sector

  • Corporate body
  • In different administrative set-ups since 1946

The ‘S’ has been an integral part of UNESCO from its foundation in 1945. In 60 years of existence, UNESCO has acted as a catalyst for the establishment of many, now leading scientific unions and bodies such as the World Conservation Union (IUCN, 1948), and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN, 1954) which saw the development of the internet. Initiatives with far-reaching implications for sustainable human security and well-being – such as the Man and the Biosphere programme, the World Heritage sites and the International Hydrological Programme – were launched in the first thirty years of UNESCO’s history.

Mayor, Federico

  • Person
  • 1934-

Federico Mayor was born in 1934. Having accomplished an PhD in Pharmacy, he became director of the Severo Ochoa Molecular Biology Centre (Madrid, 1973-1978). He served as Under-secretary of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (1974-1976) and was a member of Parliament and Chairman of the Parliamentary Commission for Education and Science (1977-1978). He later became Adviser to the Prime Minister on these questions. Minister of Education and Science (1981-1982), in 1987 he was elected a Member of the European Parliament. After being Deputy Director-General of UNESCO from 1978 to 1981, he returned to the Organization as Special Adviser to the Director-General (1983-1984), whom he succeeded in 1987.

Matsuura, Koïchiro

  • Person
  • 1937-

Koïchiro Matsuura of Japan was appointed by the Organization's General Conference on November 12 1999 to serve as Director-General of UNESCO. Mr Matsuura, born in Tokyo in 1937, served as Ambassador of Japan to France from 1994 to 1999. He was educated at the Law Faculty of the University of Tokyo and at the Faculty of Economics of Haverford College (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.) and began his diplomatic career in 1959. Posts held by Mr Matsuura include those of Director-General of the Economic Co-operation Bureau of Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1988); Director-General of the North American Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1990); Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs. He also served as the Chairperson of UNESCO's World Heritage Committee for one year, until November 1999.

Lin, Yutang

  • Person
  • 1895/10/10 - 1976/03/26

Lin Yutang, a Chinese national, was Head of UNESCO’s Arts and Letters Division from 1948-1949. Lin was born 10 October 1895, in Changchow, China. He pursued his higher education at St. John’s University in Shanghai; Harvard University, USA; Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Germany; and, Leipzig University, Germany. He earned the following degrees: Bachelor of Arts, St. John’s University (1916); Master of Arts, Harvard University (1922); and Doctorate in Linguistics, Leipzig University (1923).

Lin began his career as an English teacher at Tsinghua University, Peking, from 1916-1919. During this time, he also proposed methods to improve the Chinese indexing system and served on the Preparatory Committee for Standardizing the National Language. Upon returning to China after his studies, Lin became an English Professor at Peking National University from 1923-1926. In 1925, he also served on the Chinese Roman Phonetic Transcription Research Committee. Between 1926 and 1927, Lin moved several times, occupying academic posts and then a post as secretary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. After this period, Lin continued to hold academic positions, but focused mainly on his writing as well as pursuing his invention of a Chinese character-based typewriter. In 1928, he published the English textbooks 'Kaiming English Books'. He began to write for the English-language 'The China Critic Weekly' and was Editor-in-chief of 'Academia Sinica' from 1929-1934. In 1930, he co-founded the Chinese branch of P.E.N. International in Shanghai. Lin founded or co-founded the journals 'Analects Fortnightly,' 'World of Mankind,' 'Cosmic Wind,' and 'Western Winds' in the period 1932-1935. Following the publication of his book 'My Country and My People' in 1935, Lin moved to the United States. His numerous publications from this period, included: 'The Importance of Living' (1937), 'Moment in Peking' (1939) and 'The Wisdom of China and India' (1942).

Lin began his brief career at UNESCO July 28, 1948. He resigned for May 15, 1949. He continued to move between Europe, China and the United States as he pursued his writing and served in various academic positions. Among Lin’s works from this period, he published 'Lin Yutang's Chinese-English dictionary of modern usage' in 1972. Lin died on March 26, 1976 in Hong Kong.

Malina, Frank J.

  • Person
  • 1912/10/12 - 1981/11/09

Frank Joseph Malina was born in Brenham, Texas, USA, on October 12, 1912. He received a Bachelor of Sciences in Mechanical Engineering from the Texas Agricultural & Mechanical College in 1934. He then continued his studies at the California Institute of Technology (CIT), earning a Masters of Science in Mechanical Engineering in 1935, a Masters of Science in Aeronautical Engineering in 1936, and a Ph.D. in Aeronautics in 1940. He served as an Assistant Professor at CIT from 1942-1946.

During his academic and professional career at CIT, Malina and colleagues founded the Rocket Research Project at the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory (GALCIT). “From 1940 to 1944 Malina was the chief engineer of the Air Corps Jet Propulsion Research Project of GALCIT; in 1944 these projects became the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)” (American National Biography Online). Malina was the first director of the Laboratory from 1944-1946. His work in rocketry led to the launch of the WAC Corporal in 1945, the United States’ first successful high altitude sounding rocket. (Personnel File). In 1949, when boosted on the nose of a captured V-2 German rocket, the WAC Corporal became the first man-made object to reach outer space. (American National Biography Online).

“In 1944 and in 1946 Malina travelled to Britain and France on mission as a scientific consultant for the U.S. War Department for European Missions” (Americal National Biography Online).

Malina joined UNESCO on April 18, 1947 as a Programme Specialist (Counsellor) in the Natural Sciences Section. He was made Deputy Head of the Department on March 15, 1949, and then was appointed Head of the Division of Scientific Research on June 1, 1949. The Division had several name changes, but when Malina resigned from UNESCO effective February 10, 1953, it was named the Contribution to Research Division. Among his activities at UNESCO, Malina worked on the Hylean Amazon Project and the Arid Zone Programme, which he described in his resignation letter as being “especially close to my heart.” (Personnel File).

Among his honours, Malina was awarded the French Prix d’Astronautique in 1939, a Certificate of Commendation from the U.S. Army in 1946, the C.M. Hickman Award of the American Rocket Society in 1948, and the Order of Merit from the French Society for the Encouragement of Research and Invention in 1962.

Also an artist, after his time at UNESCO Malina seemed to focus on his art work. He was a pioneer of kinetic art, incorporating electric light into paintings or mobiles (Personnel file). He began to also incorporate sound into his works in the 1960s (WAP Unit Website). Malina’s exhibited his work internationally at major institutions such as the Centre National d'Art Contemporain (Paris) and the Smithsonian Institute (Washington, DC, USA). One of his works, Ladders to the Stars III, 1965, is in the UNESCO works of art collection. In 1968, Malina founded the art journal Leonardo and served as Chief Editor until his death. Malina died November 9, 1981.

Intergovernmental Bureau for Informatics. Cabinet of the Director General

  • Corporate body

The Cabinet of the Director-General most notably had responsibility for relations with member and non-member states, as well as relations with governmental and non-governmental organizations that may or may not have had cooperation agreements with the IBI.

Dating at least from 1982, Mohsen Boudegga was the Director of the Cabinet.

Intergovernmental Bureau for Informatics. Latin America Department

  • Corporate body
  • 1986-1988

The Latin America Department was created after a reorganization of the Cooperation Department in 1986. The Latin American Department inherited the responsibilities of the Cooperation Department for the geographic zone of South America and the Caribbean. It also inherited responsibility for coordination activities with the Regional Centre in Mexico (CREALC) which were formerly carried out by the External Relations service.

Intergovernmental Bureau for Informatics. Policies Department

  • Corporate body

One of the principal functions of the Department of Policies was to organize IBI’s major meetings on informatics policies and to participate in similar external activities. For example, the Department was particularly involved in the organization of: conferences on Transborder Data Flows; the SPINDE conference; and, IBI collaboration with the Cali and Yamoussoukro groups. In conjuction with the Director-general, the Department defined the policy vision or 'Doctrine' for the Organization. In keeping with this task, it carried out policy development activities through these meetings as well as through collaborations with other interested external actors.

Intergovernmental Bureau for Informatics. Projects Department

  • Corporate body

The Department of Projects coordinated technology transfer projects between institutions wishing to make a contribution of expert technical knowledge to developing countries. The aim was to create local autonomous institutions. The Department was directed by Carlos Piattini who was behind projects related to juridical information technology, the arabization of information technology, a presidential dashboard or interface system, and different administrative databases.

Intergovernmental Bureau for Informatics. International Institute for the Development of Informatics

  • Corporate body
  • 1984-1988

The International Institute for the Development of Informatics (IBIDI) was created based on a resolution made in the 10th session of the IBI General Assembly, held in Rome from 21-25 June 1982. Following the signature of agreements between the IBI and the Italian government, the IBIDI was established in the Centre for Studies and Advanced Technology Applications (Centro studi ed applicazioni in technologie avanzate - CSATA) in the Techopolis complex in Valenzano (Bari), Italy. It began operations in 1985.

The IBIDI sought to train professionals in informatics so that they could occupy key decision-making posts in their country. The aim was to prepare professionals to anticipate technological evolution and to facilitate knowledge transfer between IBI member countries. The institute also undertook research programs in order to diseminate new technologies as information management tools for the economic, technical and social fields.

Adiseshiah, Malcolm S.

  • Person
  • 1910-04-18 - 1994-11-21

Malcolm Sathianathan Adiseshiah was born in Vellore, India, on 18 April 1910. He earned a Bachelor of Arts in Economics from Loyola College in Madras in 1930, and then studied at King’s College, Cambridge University, and the London School of Economics, earning his PhD in 1940.

Adiseshiah began his career as a Lecturer in Economics at St. Paul’s College in Calcutta from 1931 to 1936. He then became Professor of Economics at Madras Christian College from 1940 to 1946. At this time, he was a member of the group of economists who developed the Ten-year Plan for the Industrialization of India. Adiseshiah moved to become Associate General Secretary at the World University Services in Geneva from 1946 to 1948.

Later in 1948, Adiseshiah began his career at UNESCO as Deputy Head, Exchange of Persons Service. He moved to become Head of the Technical Assistance Unit within the Office of the Director-General in 1950. After an organizational change, Adiseshiah was named Head of the new Technical Assistance Service. In 1952, the Service became the Technical Assistance Department and Adiseshiah became its Director. At the Eighth Session of the General Conference in Montevideo, the two posts of Assistant Director-General (ADG) were officially introduced and Adiseshiah was named Assistant Director-General along with Rene Maheu who had been provisionally appointed as such earlier that year. In addition to replacing the Director-General as needed, Maheu was responsible for the diplomacy of the Organization and Adiseshiah was to concentrate on the technical assistance programme, the integration of the technical assistance programme with the regular programme, and the coordination of administration of programme activities in general. Adiseshiah formally started as ADG at the start of 1955. The division of duties between the ADGs remained fluid. In 1960, Adiseshiah was said to be responsible for the administration and management of the Secretariat and for UNESCO’s field programmes. For the period 1960 to 1963, he was given the responsibility for helping newly independent countries of Africa. Adiseshiah was responsible for the development of the Karachi Plan for universal primary education for Asia and educational development and science plans for Africa and Latin America.

Again in the face of larger organizational change (departments becoming sectors with an Assistant Director-General at head as opposed to a Director), Adiseshiah was made Deputy Director-General (DDG) in 1963. In this role, in addition to replacing the Director-General as required, Adiseshiah was given special responsibility for coordinating organization-wide programme services relating to UNESCO’s work on the contribution of education in all its forms to economic development and for programme services relating to the direct relationship of science and technology to national progress. He also oversaw UNESCO’s cooperation with the United Nations Special Fund and was specifically charged by the Director-General to organize and direct a system of inspection of field activities. Adiseshiah served as DDG until his retirement from UNESCO at the end of 1970. For a period of five months in 1969, he also acted as interim Assistant Director-General of the Natural Sciences Sector. The Sixteenth Session of the General Conference in 1970 expressed its high esteem of Adiseshiah, noting that he had "served the Organization with unstinting devotion and energy, labouring untiringly, in particular, to advance the cause of development and international co-operation" (16 C/Resolution 0.9, 1971).

After his retirement, Adiseshiah was a member of the Tamil Nadu State Planning Commission. From 1970 to 1971, he founded with his wife the Madras Institute of Development Studies. He was the Institute’s first Director and remained Chairman of its Governing Council until his death. He was President of the Indian Economic Association from 1973 to 1974, President of the Indian Adult Education Commission, and a member of the Central Advisory Board of Education, the Indian Council of Social Science Research, and the National Council of Teacher Education. Beginning in 1975, Adisehiah was named Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. In 1978, he was nominated to the Rajya Sabha for a six-year term. He was President of the International Council of Adult Education. Adiseshiah served as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the International Institute for Educational Planning from 1981 to 1989. He also served as Chairman for the jury of UNESCO’s literacy prizes.

Adiseshiah died in Madras, India, on 21 November 1994. The UNESCO Malcolm Adiseshiah International Literacy Prize was created in 1998 from a contribution by India. The Prize was awarded annually from 1998 to 2001 for meritorious and effective contribution to the struggle against illiteracy. Among his many works, Adiseshiah published the books Let my country awake (1970) and It is time to begin (1972).

Elmandjra, Mahdi

  • Person
  • 1933-03-13 - 2014-06-13

Mahdi Elmandjra was born 13 March 1933 in Rabat, Morocco. He started his high-school education at Lycée Lyautey in Casablanca in 1944 and received his Baccalaureate in 1948. He then went to Putney School, Vermont, USA from 1948 to 1950. Elmandjra obtained a B.A. in Chemistry and Political Science from Cornell University in New York in 1954, and a Ph.D. in Economics from the London School of Economics in 1957.

Elmandjra had a varied career, including the following positions. He worked as an assistant at the Faculty of Law in Rabat, Morocco from 1957 to 1958. Following this, he filled the position of Counsellor, Permanent Mission of Morocco to the UN in New York from 1958 to 1959.

From 1961 to 1963, Elmadjra worked at UNESCO as Chief of the Africa Unit in the Bureau of Relations with Member States, and from 1963 to 1966 he worked as Director, Executive Office of the Director-General. Between 1966 and 1970, he served as Assistant Director-General of Social Sciences, Human Sciences and Culture. He went on to work as Professor and Researcher at the Center of International Studies in London in 1970. Returning to UNESCO, Elmandjra served as Assistant Director-General for Pre-Programming from 1971 to 1975, and Special Adviser to the Director-General from 1975 to 1976. As Special Advisor, he was charged with studying the modalities of cooperation between UNESCO and the regional and national Arab funds, in particular with respect to the financing of operational activities.

After his career at UNESCO, he taught at the Faculté des Sciences Juridiques Economiques et Sociales, Université Mohamed V, in Rabat between the years 1976 to 1979. Subsequently he worked as Assistant Secretary-General, United Nations Development Programme, and he held the position of Special Consultant to the United Nations during the International Year of Disabled Persons from 1980 to 1981.

Elmandjra wrote extensively throughout his career, and several of his books have been translated into different languages. His many publications include: The United Nations System, 1973; No Limits to Learning (Report to the Club of Rome), 1979; Human Rights and Development, 1989; Islam and the Future, 1990; The First World Cultural War, 1991; Rétrospective des Futurs, 1992; Cultural Diversity Key to Survival, 1995; and Regionalization of Globalization, 2000.

Throughout his career, Elmandjra received several distinctions and awards, including: the Curzon Prize of French literature at Cornell University, 1953; the Rockefeller Award for International Relations, London School of Economics, 1955; the Order of Independence of the Kingdom in Jordan, 1959; the Chevalier de l'ordre des Arts et des Lettres , 1970; Prix de la Vie Économique, Paris, 1981; Grand Medal of the French Academy of Architecture, 1984; the Officier de l’ordre des Arts et des Lettres, France, 1985; Order of the Rising Sun (III), Japan, 1986; the Medal of Peace the Albert Einstein International Academy, 1991; and the Award of the World Future Studies Federation, 1995.

Mahdi Elmandjra died 13 June 2014.

Fournier, Francine

  • Person

"Dr. Francine Fournier achieved her doctorate in political science at the University of Montreal. She taught at the political science departments of the Universities of Montreal and Quebec (Montreal). She was appointed Secretary of the Quebec Council on the Status of Women and later became President of the Quebec Human Rights Commission from 1979 until 1985. From 1988 to 1990, she was Secretary-General of the Canadian National
Commission for UNESCO. After her engagement with UNESCO she was President of the Multipartite national programme of reconciliation for the Orphans of Duplessis." (UNESCO, 2007, 60 Women..., p.282).

Costa du Rels, Adolfo

  • Person
  • 1891-1980

Adolfo Costa du Rels was born in Sucre, Bolivia, in 1891. After studying classics and law at the Sorbonne in Paris and spending time in the Bolivian mining regions, he entered the diplomatic service where he successively served in the following roles: attaché at the Bolivian embassy in France, chargé d’affaires in Chile, deputy in Bolivia, advisor at the Bolivian embassy in France, Bolivian delegate to the Pan-American Conference in Havana in 1928 (where he was rapporteur for the Havana convention on the protection of artists’ and authors’ rights), delegate to the IIIC, delegate to the General Assembly of the League of Nations (LN), Vice-President of the eleventh session of the Assembly (1930), and member of the Permanent Committee on Arts and Letters from 1931. He was appointed a plenipotentiary minister in Switzerland and at the Vatican between 1937 and 1943, then Bolivia’s ambassador to Argentina from 1943 until 1944. Between 1940 and 1946 he was the last President of the Council of the LN. After the war, he served as Bolivian Ambassador to France from 1948 to 1952 and, in 1973, as Ambassador to UNESCO.

Besides his diplomatic career, he wrote novels, short stories, dramas and essays. He was a regular contributor to the French journal Le Temps. In 1976, he received the Bolivian National Prize of literature. Costa du Rels died in 1980.

Madariaga, Salvador de

  • Person
  • 1886-1978

Salvador de Madariaga was born in Corona, Spain, in 1886. He studied at the Instituto Cisneros in Madrid and in France at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole des Mines. He worked as a railway engineer from 1912 to 1916, and simultaneously engaged in literary and journalistic work in the Spanish press, specialising in French and British affairs. In 1916, he joined the London Times.

He served as a technical Attaché to the Spanish delegation to the Barcelona Conference on the freedom of transit (1921), and began to work at the League of Nations (LN) the same year. He became a member of the Information Section at the LN Secretariat (1921), and went on to head the Disarmament Section from 1921 until 1927. His diplomatic career was interrupted by the Spanish Civil War. During the Second Spanish Republic, he served as Minister of Public Education, a post from which he resigned after five weeks to become successively ambassador to the US and France. De Madariaga also continued to represent Spain at the LN for this period. Forced into exile after the defeat of the Republicans, he focused on teaching, historical research, journalism and literature. After the Second World War he was elected president of the cultural department of the European movement, and then served as co-founding president of the College of Europe in Bruges until 1972. He later retired to Locarno where he died in 1978.

A member of the ICIC, de Madariaga was involved in the activities of the Sub-Committee on Arts and Letters during the 1920s, before becoming a member of the Permanent Committee on Arts and Letters in 1931. In 1936 the ICIC selected him as President of the Committee of Directors of the International Museums Office (IMO). A novelist and poet, he participated in the correspondences and interviews, organised and published by the IIIC: Entretiens sur Goethe (1932), Pour une Société des Esprits (1933), L'Avenir de la Culture (1933), L'Avenir de l'esprit européen (1934), L' Art et la réalité. L' Art et l'Etat (1935), Vers un nouvel humanisme (1937) and Le Destin prochain des lettres (1938).

Bonnevie, Kristine

  • Person
  • 1872-1948

Kristine Bonnevie was born in Trondheim, Norway, in 1872. A Zoologist, she was the first woman to be elected to the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters (1911), and the first woman to hold a professorship at the University of Oslo (beginning in 1912).

Bonnevie was a Norwegian delegate to the League of Nations (LN) in 1921. In this capacity, she assured that women would be included in the future International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC). When the ICIC was founded in 1922, she was one of the twelve original members. She defended an ICIC as international and as apolitical as possible. She supported reforms of the Organisation of Intellectual Cooperation in 1929, and she helped to draw up the program of the ICIC in 1930. That same year, she left the ICIC in order to devote her time to scientific research, but she remained a member of the Norwegian Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (founded in 1924). Bonnevie died in 1948 in Oslo.

Castro, Aloísio de

  • Person
  • 1881-1959

Aloisio de Castro was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1881. He studied medicine in Rio de Janeiro, and, after having received a scholarship for a research trip to Europe, he obtained his doctorate in 1903. He practiced at the Medical School of Rio de Janeiro from 1904 until 1908, before becoming deputy health secretary at the social service in Rio de Janeiro (1906–08), professor of medical pathology and clinical medicine (1915–1940), Director-General of the School of Medicine (1915–1924), and director of the general department for education at the Brazilian Ministry of Education (1927–1932). De Castro also served as President of the Society of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Legal Medicine at the Brazilian Academy of Medicine. He was a member of numerous international medical associations. Beyond his scientific work, he published pieces of poetry as well as musical compositions for piano and choir.

De Castro was a member of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) from 1922 until 1930. In 1922 he founded the Brazilian Committee of Intellectual Cooperation, whose presidency he assumed in 1926 until 1933. He died in 1959 in Rio de Janeiro.

Dupierreux, Richard

  • Person
  • 1891-1957

Richard Dupierreux was born in Couillet, Belgium, in 1891. He obtained a PhD in law from the University of Brussels in 1914 and went on to practice as a lawyer at the Brussels Court of Appeal. Between 1915 and 1918, he served as Jules Destrée’s private secretary during the latter’s missions to Italy and Russia. When Destrée became the Belgian Minister of Arts and Sciences, Dupierreux became his chief of staff between November 1919 and November 1921. In addition to this work, he pursued literary and journalistic activities in Belgium. Between 1920 and 1923, for instance, he directed the foreign policy section of La Nation. He also served as President of the Belgian Foreign Press Union from 1921 until 1923, and lead the arts, literary, and theatre section at the Le Soir, where he worked under the pseudonym Casimir. At the same time, he taught art history and civilisational history at the Institut supérier des Beaux-Arts in Antwerp. He died in 1957, having been elected to the Belgian Royal Academy the preceding year.

In the Fall of 1924, when Jules Destrée was considering creating a press section at the IIIC, he intended his collaborator Dupierreux to be head of the unit. In fact he became Chief of the Section for artistic relations in November 1925, and resigned from this position in December 1929. During this period, he served as Secretary of the Belgian Committee of Intellectual Cooperation which had been founded at the initiative of Destrée in 1922. Dupierreux was also involved in the International Museums Office’s (IMO) activities: he was a member of the preliminary committee in charge of the IMO’s first steps in autumn 1926 alongside Destrée, Henri Focillon, Julien Luchaire, George Oprescu, and Hélène Vacaresco. Between 1927–1929, he became coordinator at the IMO, before leaving the path to Euripide Foundoukidis who became Secretary-General of the Organisation in 1931. In 1937, Dupierreux helped with the preparation of the Belgian delegation to the second Conferences of National Committees of Intellectual Cooperation, organised by the IIIC, together with the Belgian Secretary-General of education Marcel Nyns and the president of the Belgian Committee Paul Hymans.

Ocampo, Victoria

  • Person
  • 1890-1979

Born in Buenos Aires in 1890, Victoria Ocampo came from an Argentinian high-society family. In 1916, aged 26, she met José Ortega y Gasset who had a great influence on her. Virginia Woolf, to whom she later dedicated a study, also inspired her to become a writer.
In 1931 Ocampo founded the review Sur (the title of which was suggested to her by Ortega y Gasset). Writers from all over the world collaborated in the review, the editorial board included, among others: Pedro Enriquez Ureña, Alfonso Reyes, Ortega y Gasset, Jules Supervielle, Guillermo de Torre, Waldo Frank, Jorge Luis Borges, and Eduardo Mallea. The review published works by young literary talents as well as major authors of the time, such as: Breton, Camus, Claudel, Caillois, Eluard, Gide, Malraux, Maritain, Romain Rolland, Saint-John Perse, Sartre, Valéry, Graham Greene, Huxley, Shaw, Jorge Guillén, J. R. Jiménez, Heidegger, Herman Hesse, Thomas Mann, Croce, Ungaretti, Michaux, Asturias, Octavio Paz, Faulkner, Saroyan, Steinbeck, etc. The review’s history continued until 1970 and played a significant role in spreading international literature in the Latin American world.

Ocampo formed long friendships with a number of writers and intellectuals, such as Français Pierre Drieu La Rochelle, Jules Supervielle, Roger Caillois, Rabindranath Tagore, and the Spaniards Jorge Luis Borges et Federico García Lorca. From 1935 Ocampo published her memoirs in ten volumes (1935–1977) in which she recounts her various encounters, alongside numerous novels: La Laguna de los nenúfares (1924), Supremacía del alma y de la sangre (1933), Domingos en Hyde Park (1936), San Isidro (1941), Habla el algarrobo (1959). Victoria Ocampo décède en 1979.

“There is no authentic national culture, only authentic international culture”, declared Ocampo to those who accused her of being too preoccupied with foreign literature. This internationalism marked the life and the work of the Argentinian writer, but also her commitment to the Organisation of Intellectual Cooperation. In May 1939, she was appointed a member of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC).

After the war, she remained a public intellectual, giving lectures and receiving honorary degrees in various countries. She donated her Buenos Aires villa to UNESCO in 1973 for, as she wished, “promotion, research, experimentation and development of activities related to culture, literature, art and social communication, which are aimed at improving the quality of human life.”

National Commissions for intellectual cooperation

  • Corporate body
  • 1922-1946

The National Commissions for intellectual cooperation began to be established in 1922-1923, following a CICI study on the conditions of intellectual workers. National Commissions, affiliated with the CICI, were national working groups responsible for questions on intellectual cooperation in their respective countries. They were composed of intellectuals who were initially charged with alerting the CICI to the post-war situation and needs with respect to intellectual cooperation in their respective countries. The National Commissions evolved to play a liaison role between the CICI and their national institutions. The Commissions had varied statuses in their states: governmental, semi-governmental, or private (for the majority). By 1940, 40 National Commissions were operating. The Commissions ceased their activities during the Second World War, and then briefly recommenced their activities in 1946, avant que l'IICI ne disparaisse.

International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation. Committee of Directors

  • Corporate body
  • 1924-1946

The International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) was directed by two bodies: the Governing Body and the Committee of Directors. The Committee of Directors (or Director’s Committee) was composed of five individuals of different nationalities as well as the Director of the IIIC. Its members were appointed by the Governing Body with the approval of the Council of the League of Nations (LN) [article 5 of the Internal Regulations of 1925]. They served five year terms and could be re-elected once. At the discretion of the Governing Body, there could be up to three deputy members of the Committee of Directors.

The Committee of Directors was responsible for executing the program settled by the Governing Body, each year. It was also able propose projects to the Governing Body and, given that the Governing Body only met once a year, the Committee executed any projects that they considered useful for the activities of the IIIC [article X of the Internal Regulations of the IIIC]. The Committee of Directors met every two months, but could also be called in at special occasions by the Director of the IIIC.

The Committee of Directors nominated the functionaries of the IIIC [article 10 of the Internal Regulations of 1925] and created, subject to approval by the Governing Body, the auxiliary services that helped the Sections of the IIIC in various matters [article 18 of the Internal Regulations of the IIIC].

International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation. University Relations Section

  • Corporate body
  • 1925-1946

When the IIIC was established in 1926, the “Section of General Affairs”, dealing with university questions, replaced the International Office of University Education (founded in 1923 and attached to the League of Nations Secretariat). This Section was dissolved in July 1926 and replaced by the “University Relations Section”, with Alfred Zimmern appointed as head. Zimmern held this post until 1929 when he was succeeded by Dr. Werner Picht. Zimmern also served as President of the International Bureau of Education which had been attached to the University Relations Section since 1926.

The task of the University Relations Section was to foster cooperation between universities in various countries. It encouraged the creation of university offices within the LN member states as well as exchanges between students and lecturers from around the world. It also helped to launch scholarship programs. The Section published a “Bulletin of University Relations”.

The activities of the Section ceased together with the dissolution of the Institute in 1946.

Herzog, Marie Pierre

  • Person

Marie-Pierre Herzog, a French national, joined the staff of UNESCO in March 1969 as Director of the Division of Philosophy. In 1973, she was made Director of the newly created Human Rights Coordination Unit. The Unit became the Division of Human Rights and Peace in 1975.

Kutukdjian, Georges B.

  • Person
  • 1942-

Georges B. Kutukdjian, a Lebanese national, was born in Cairo, Egypt, in 1942. He pursued his higher education at the University of Paris, studying philosophy and social anthropology, earning the following degrees: license de sociologie; diplome d’études supérieures de philosophie; certificat de mathémathique; certificat de l’informatique. Kutukdjian was a Collaborateur with Professor Claude Levi-Strauss at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique of France from 1968 to 1971.

Kutukdjian began his career at UNESCO in 1972 as a Programme Specialist in the Division of Applied Social Sciences. In 1976, as the Sector was reorganized, he moved to the Division for the Study of Development. Kutukdjian was appointed Chief of the Evaluation and Coordination Unit, Office of the Assistant Director-General, Sector for Social Sciences and their Applications, in 1978. In 1985, he moved to become Programme Specialist in the Division of Human Rights and Peace. When the Bio-ethics Unit was created in 1992, Kutukdjian was appointed its Director. The Bio-Ethics Unit was moved to the Services attached to the Directorate in 1994. In 1999, the Unit was made the Division of Ethics of Science and Technology. Later that year, the Division was moved back to the Sector of Social and Human Sciences. Kutukdjian retired from UNESCO in 2001.

Beyond and complementary to his work at UNESCO, Kutudkjian held the following positions: President, UNESCO Staff Association, 1979-1982; Secretary-General of the International Bioethics Committee (IBC),1993-1997; Executive Secretary of the World Commission of the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology (COMEST), 1998-2001(?); Rapporteur of the IBC Drafting Group of the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data, 2003-2005; Member, Scientific Committee, International Bioethics Society; Adviser, French National Commission for UNESCO at the International Bioethics Committee, 2005; Vice-President and President of the Association of Former UNESCO Staff Members (AFUS), 2005-2010, as well as President of the AFUS History Club, 2005-2010. He was also recently one of the General Editors of the UNESCO World Report Investing in Cultural Diversity and Intercultural Dialogue (2010). Among other publications, he co-authored the book Rights of peoples (1991) and contributed to The Book: a world transformed (2001). Kutukdjian has taught seminars on diplomacy and international organizations (University of Paris-South) and in bioethics and biotechnologies (University of Versailles).

European Organization for Nuclear Research

  • Corporate body
  • 1954-09-29 -

“The Convention establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) was approved by 12 Member States at the 6th session of the Provisional CERN Council in Paris, 29 June - 1 July 1953, and entered into force on 29 September 1954, when sufficient ratifications of the Convention were obtained from the Member States. Hence, 29 September 1954 is the date when CERN came officially into being.”
“The first ideas for international laboratories were put forward as early as 1946 within the United Nations Organization. It was not until December 1949 that this focused on achieving European collaboration in nuclear physics: a commission of the European Cultural Conference held in Lausanne from the 8th to 12th of that month proposed the creation of a European Institute for nuclear science. The next major step in this direction was the voting of a resolution proposed at the fifth General Conference of UNESCO, in Florence on 7 June 1950. This was followed by a more explicit resolution made at a meeting in Geneva on 12 December 1950 at the Centre Européen de la Culture. The resolution recommended that a laboratory be established based on the construction of a large machine for accelerating elementary particles. Signature, by eleven States, of the Agreement constituting a "Council of Representatives of European States for Planning an International Laboratory and Organizing Other Forms of Co-operation in Nuclear Physics" was performed on 15 February 1952 at the second session of the intergovernmental conference, held in Geneva. The task of the Council and its executive was to draw up plans for the new laboratory and its equipment, and to draft an intergovernmental convention to place the organization on a permanent footing. By February 1952 two strong candidates had emerged for the location of the organization: Geneva and Copenhagen. By the end of July the French and Dutch governments had also offered sites in Paris and Arnhem respectively. The Council met for the first time in May 1952 and the Geneva location was finally agreed upon at the third Council session. Great Britain did not sign the 1952 Agreement establishing the provisional CERN but joined, on 1 July 1953, the eleven States who were party to the Agreement in Paris to approve the text of the Convention and the Financial Protocol annexed thereto. The Convention establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the protocol were open for signature until the 31 December 1953. The Convention came into force on 29 September 1954 when the instruments of ratification of seven of the Member States were deposited at UNESCO House in Paris.
“CERN’s goals were set out in Article II of The Convention Establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research: "The Organization shall provide for collaboration among European States in nuclear research of a pure scientific and fundamental character, and in research essentially related thereto. The Organization shall have no concern with work for military requirements and the results of its experimental and theoretical work shall be published or otherwise made generally available".
The Convention also states that CERN shall organize and sponsor international co-operation in research, promoting contacts between scientists and interchange with other laboratories and institutes. This includes dissemination of information, and the provision of advanced training for research workers, which continue to be reflected in the current programmes for technology transfer and education and training at many levels.
"The revised edition of the Convention and the Financial Protocol annexed thereto, dated 18 January 1971, embodies amendments which have subsequently been adopted by the Council of the Organization. See:<a href=""></a>(Guide to the Archives of International Organizations, 2011).

United Nations

  • Corporate body
  • 1945/10/24 -

"The United Nations was a name devised by the late President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942 when 26 nations pledged to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers. The United Nations Charter was drawn up by the representatives of countries at the United Nations Conference on International Organization, San Francisco, 25 April-26 June 1945, and was based on proposals worked out earlier at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington D.C. by representatives of China, the USSR, the United Kingdom and the United States in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945. The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945 when the Charter was ratified by China, France, the USSR, the United Kingdom and the United States, and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year" (Guide to the Archives of International Organizations).

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