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authority records

European Organization for Nuclear Research

  • Corporate body
  • 1954-09-29 -

“The Convention establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) was approved by 12 Member States at the 6th session of the Provisional CERN Council in Paris, 29 June - 1 July 1953, and entered into force on 29 September 1954, when sufficient ratifications of the Convention were obtained from the Member States. Hence, 29 September 1954 is the date when CERN came officially into being.”
“The first ideas for international laboratories were put forward as early as 1946 within the United Nations Organization. It was not until December 1949 that this focused on achieving European collaboration in nuclear physics: a commission of the European Cultural Conference held in Lausanne from the 8th to 12th of that month proposed the creation of a European Institute for nuclear science. The next major step in this direction was the voting of a resolution proposed at the fifth General Conference of UNESCO, in Florence on 7 June 1950. This was followed by a more explicit resolution made at a meeting in Geneva on 12 December 1950 at the Centre Européen de la Culture. The resolution recommended that a laboratory be established based on the construction of a large machine for accelerating elementary particles. Signature, by eleven States, of the Agreement constituting a "Council of Representatives of European States for Planning an International Laboratory and Organizing Other Forms of Co-operation in Nuclear Physics" was performed on 15 February 1952 at the second session of the intergovernmental conference, held in Geneva. The task of the Council and its executive was to draw up plans for the new laboratory and its equipment, and to draft an intergovernmental convention to place the organization on a permanent footing. By February 1952 two strong candidates had emerged for the location of the organization: Geneva and Copenhagen. By the end of July the French and Dutch governments had also offered sites in Paris and Arnhem respectively. The Council met for the first time in May 1952 and the Geneva location was finally agreed upon at the third Council session. Great Britain did not sign the 1952 Agreement establishing the provisional CERN but joined, on 1 July 1953, the eleven States who were party to the Agreement in Paris to approve the text of the Convention and the Financial Protocol annexed thereto. The Convention establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the protocol were open for signature until the 31 December 1953. The Convention came into force on 29 September 1954 when the instruments of ratification of seven of the Member States were deposited at UNESCO House in Paris.
“CERN’s goals were set out in Article II of The Convention Establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research: "The Organization shall provide for collaboration among European States in nuclear research of a pure scientific and fundamental character, and in research essentially related thereto. The Organization shall have no concern with work for military requirements and the results of its experimental and theoretical work shall be published or otherwise made generally available".
The Convention also states that CERN shall organize and sponsor international co-operation in research, promoting contacts between scientists and interchange with other laboratories and institutes. This includes dissemination of information, and the provision of advanced training for research workers, which continue to be reflected in the current programmes for technology transfer and education and training at many levels.
"The revised edition of the Convention and the Financial Protocol annexed thereto, dated 18 January 1971, embodies amendments which have subsequently been adopted by the Council of the Organization. See:<a href=""></a>(Guide to the Archives of International Organizations, 2011).

Evans, Luther

  • Person
  • 1902-1981

Luther Evans was born in Texas in 1902. Specialist in political science and international relations, he organized and directed the Historical Records Survey for the Works Project Administration, before joining the famous Library of Congress. He served as adviser to the United States delegation from the second to the seventh sessions of the General Conference. He occupied a seat on the Executive Board with effect from 1949, before being appointed Director-General in 1953. He died in 1981.

Falt, Eric

  • Person

"The new Assistant Director-General for the Sector for External Relations and Cooperation will be Eric Falt of France, who is currently Director of the Outreach Division of the United Nations Department of Public Information. Mr Falt’s UN career as a spokesman and head of information services has taken him to many countries in post-conflict situations, including Cambodia, where he was spokesman for the United Nations Transitional Authority and Iraq, where he was in charge of information in the United Nations Office of the Humanitarian Coordinator for Iraq. He has also worked for the United Nations in Haiti, Pakistan and Kenya" (UNESCO, Press Release 2010-043).

Focillon, Henri

  • Person
  • 1881-1943

Born in Dijon, France, in 1881, Henri Focillon studied at the Ecole normale supérieure in Paris. After his diploma in classics he succeeded the art historian Emile Bertaux at the literature faculty in Lyon and was appointed director of the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Lyon, a post that he held from 1913 until 1924. In 1924 he succeeded Emile Mâle as chair of medieval art history at the Sorbonne, a post that he held until 1927. In 1933 he began a lecture series at Yale together with art historian Marcel Aubert.

In 1938 he was elected to the Collège de France and he accepted a chair at Yale university. He found himself in the US when the Second World War broke out and decided to stay. In 1940 he became a senior scholar at Harvard and he died in 1943 in New Haven. He published articles in the free French resistance journal, such as “Life of a Nation, 1919–1939” (1941), and his testimony for France, prefaced by General de Gaulle, was published posthumously in 1945.

Focillon played an active role in intellectual cooperation, particularly in the field of museums, popular arts and archeology. A member of the Sub-Committee of Arts and Letters at the IIIC, he proposed the creation of an International Museums Office (IMO) in April 1926. He explained the role that museums can play in the mutual understanding of cultures at the League of Nations (LN) Assembly in July 1926: museums could “facilitate more precise and rich knowledge of other peoples” through art.

When the IMO was created in July 1926, Focillon was a member of the Committee of Directors, a position that he held until July 1927. He thereafter pursued activities at the Sub-Committee of Arts and Letters at the IIIC, and played an important role in organising a congress for popular art in Prague (1928), as well as in the formation of the International Committee of Popular Art in 1929. In 1931 he co-founded together with Paul Valéry the Permanent Committee of Arts and Letters, which succeeded the Sub-Committee of Arts and Letters. In July of the same year, he suggested to the ICIC to create an international centre of institutions of archeology and history of art. This new institution was in fact founded in the same year and published a regular Bulletin.

Focillon remained a member of the Permanent Committee of Arts and Letters until the war, he participated in the publication of the interview and correspondence series by the IIIC during the 1930s which brought together famous intellectuals. In 1939, the IMO published a work on the problem of warheads, in which Focillon wrote an article alongside art historians Jurgis Baltrusaitis and Marcel Aubert.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

  • Corporate body
  • 1945/10/16 -

"The foundation of FAO on the 16 October 1945 took place as result of three major steps. From 18 May to 3 June 1943, representatives of 44 governments met in Hot Springs, Virginia, USA, and committed themselves to founding a permanent organization in the fields of food and agriculture. The conference considered world problems of food and agriculture and declared "its belief that the goal of freedom from want of food, suitable and adequate for the health and strength of all people can be achieved". The concrete establishment of this organization was entrusted to the Interim Commission on Food and Agriculture, set up in Washington with representatives of each of the governments and authorities represented at the Hot Springs Conference. The major task of the Commission was to draw up a Constitution and to transmit this constitution to the 45 nations eligible for a membership in the permanent organization to be created.

"The formal foundation of the Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO of the United Nations took place in the first session of the FAO Conference in Chateau Frontenac in Quebec, Canada, from 16 October to 1 November 1945. The Constitution drafted by the Interim Commission was signed by 34 nations and thus brought into force on 16 October 1945. At the end of the session, FAO consisted of 39 formal members, and the organization established its headquarters in Washington DC, USA. In 1951, the FAO headquarters were moved to Rome, Italy" (Guide to the Archives of International Organizations.)

Foundoukidis, Euripide

  • Person
  • 1894–1968

Born in Greece in 1894, Euripidi Foundoukidis was educated at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Internationales and the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales in Paris. He served as a delegate of the Greek government to the 1920 Congress of the Postal Union. For several years he worked as a civil servant and as editor at the Greek journal Phos. He also worked as cultural advisor to the Greek Embassy in Paris.

Foundoukidis joined the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) as an Attaché at the Section of Artistic Relations in January 1929, before becoming Secretary of the International Office of Museums (IOM) in April 1929. In 1931 he was promoted to Secretary-General of the IOM, a contract which was renewed in 1936 and lasted until September 1941, before the IOM became dormant during the war and Foundoukidis finally left the IIIC in 1946.

After he left the IIIC, Foundoukidis remained honorary director of the Hellenic society at the Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris. He was a Chevallier of the Legion of Honour. Foundoukidis died on 11 September 1968.

Fournier, Francine

  • Person

"Dr. Francine Fournier achieved her doctorate in political science at the University of Montreal. She taught at the political science departments of the Universities of Montreal and Quebec (Montreal). She was appointed Secretary of the Quebec Council on the Status of Women and later became President of the Quebec Human Rights Commission from 1979 until 1985. From 1988 to 1990, she was Secretary-General of the Canadian National
Commission for UNESCO. After her engagement with UNESCO she was President of the Multipartite national programme of reconciliation for the Orphans of Duplessis." (UNESCO, 2007, 60 Women..., p.282).

Giuliano, Balbino

  • Person
  • 1879-1958

Balbino Guilano was born in Fossano, Italy, in 1879. He completed his studies in philosophy and literature at the University of Turin, and went on to teach philosophy at Florence (1925–1930), Bologna (1931–1932), and Rome (1932–1935). He was Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature in Rome from 1935 until 1940. Besides his university achievements, he pursued a political career in the fascist movement. Having served as Secretary of State from 1924 until 1925, he became Minister of Education in 1929 and remained in this position until 1932. It was during his tenure that teachers at Italian universities saw the imposition of an oath of allegiance to the regime. In 1934 he became Senator. After the breakdown of the Fascist system, Guilano retired from political and university life and benefitted from the Togliatti amnesty. He died in 1958 in Rome.

Guilano repeatedly took part in activities of the Organisation of Intellectual Cooperation (OIC). In 1928, the Italian Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was founded, the members of which were elected on the proposition of the Education Ministry and with the consent of the Foreign Affairs Ministry: Guilano was elected President of this Committee in 1935. He was also appointed a member of the ICIC and President of the International Educational Cinematographic Institute in 1937. However, Italy’s withdrawal from the LN on 11 December 1937 put an end to Guilano’s activities at the OCI, as to those of all other Italian civil servants at the LN.

Gleditsch, Ellen

  • Person
  • 1879-1968

Ellen Gleditsch was born in Mandal, Norway, in 1879. After her pharmaceutical studies at Tromsø and Oslo, she worked as an assistant at the chemical laboratory at the Royal Frederick University in Oslo. She pursued her studies while working at the same time, and joined Marie Curie’s lab in Paris in 1907. While working with Curie, she also studied at Sorbonne and graduated with a degree in sciences in 1912. Together with Curie she conducted research on radium and uranium as well as their relationships with minerals. Her output earned her an academic reputation and allowed her to travel: for instance, invited by Yale University, she worked on the determining the half-life of radium. She also taught at Strasbourg, France, Budapest, Sophia, Bucharest, Glasgow, and a number of American universities.

In 1916 she received a teaching position in radiochemistry at the University of Oslo. In 1920 she was awarded the Nansen Prize in recognition of her achievements. In 1929 she became the second Norwegian woman to hold a professorship, after Kristine Bonnevie, and she took over the direction of the chair of inorganic chemistry, a post that she held until her retirement in 1946. In 1948 she received an honorary doctorate from Strasbourg, and in 1962 she was the first woman to receive an honorary doctorate from the Sorbonne. Gleditsch died in 1968 in Oslo.

Throughout her career, Gleditsch maintained close contacts to her professional colleagues from abroad. Between 1926 and 1929, she presided over the International Federation of University Women (IFUW). In January 1939, the ICIC appointed her as a member for the period of three years. However, her mandate ended with the termination of the ICIC’s activities at the outbreak of the Second World War.

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