Showing 1719 results

authority records

Comité Français de l’Institut international du cinéma éducatif

  • Corporate body
  • 1930-1938

Following an Accord reached between the Chambre Syndicale Française de la Cinématographie and the International Educational Cinematographic Institute (IECI), the Comité Français de l’Institut international du cinéma éducatif was established on 27 May 1930. IECI called for the establishment of national committees in countries with high film production starting in 1929. The headquarters of the Comité were initially based in the offices of the Chambre syndicale. The Comité was originally composed of representatives of the Chambre syndicale, la Fédération Nationale des Offices régionaux du cinema d’enseignement et d’éducation laïques, le Comité Catholique du Cinéma, as well as French members and experts from the IECI. Charles Delac was elected the first President and Jean Benoit-Lévy was elected Secretary-General. The Comité had a secretariat and a permanent office. Its mission was to coordinate and assemble information about and to seek opinions from French experts and organizations on matters in the IECI’s field of competencies. After a reorganization in 1935, the office was transferred to the Institut International de Coopération Intellectuelle and the statutes of the Comité were revised. In 1937, Italy withdrew from the League of Nations and the IECI was dissolved. The Comité Français was dissolved the following year, effective 31 December 1938.

Conference of Allied Ministers of Education

  • Corporate body
  • 1942-1945

As early as 1942, in wartime, the governments of the European countries, which were confronting Nazi Germany and its allies, met in the United Kingdom for the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME). The Second World War was far from over, yet those countries were looking for ways and means to reconstruct their systems of education once peace was restored. Very quickly, the project gained momentum and soon took on a universal note. New governments, including that of the United States, decided to join in.

By midsummer 1943, the work of the Conference grew to such an extent that re-organization was necessary. From the discussion about the re-organization of the Conference, it came out that one of the objects of the reconstituted CAME would be to consider plans for the formation of a permanent organization for promoting cooperation in educational matters in the post-war period. This organization should first be confined to the United Nations, and should then - after the war - grow into an international organization.

The decision of CAME to promote the foundation of a United Nations Organization for Educational and Cultural Reconstruction found a profound echo in the public. The League of Nations Union expressed the hope that the new organization would develop into a General International Organization for education which would provide the moral and intellectual basis of the peace.

The decision was taken to convene an extraordinary Conference, which would be attended by the participating countries on an equal footing with one vote for each, for the purpose of agreeing on the creation of an international organization that would take charge of educational and cultural concerns during the reconstruction period: the United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF).

Conference of the Establishment of UNESCO

  • Corporate body
  • 1 to 16 November 1945

The United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London from 1 to 16 November 1945. Scarcely had the war ended when the conference opened. It gathered together the representatives of forty-four countries. Spurred on by France and the United Kingdom, two countries that had known great hardship during the conflict, the delegates decided to create an organization that would embody a genuine culture of peace. In their eyes, the new organization must establish the “intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind” and, in so doing, prevent the outbreak of another world war.

At the end of the conference, thirty-seven countries founded the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Cornejo, Mariano

  • Person
  • 1866-1942

Mariano Cornejo was born in Arequipa, Peru, in 1867. He studied law and political science at the National University of San Marcos in Lima. In 1896 he defended his doctoral thesis in political science. He practiced for several years as a lawyer. In 1896 he set up a chair of sociology at the National University of San Marcos. In 1897 he was elected as a democratic deputy and in 1901 he became President of the Chamber of Deputies. In 1905, Cornejo was made a plenipotentiary minister in Spain in order to defend Peruvian interests in the question of its borders with Ecuador. When the diplomatic negotiations failed, he returned to Lima where he again worked as a professor of sociology at San Marcos (1911). The following year, he was elected a Senator and occupied this function until 1918. He supported the coup d’etat of 4 July 1919 which brought Augusti B. Leguia the presidency of Peru, and Cornejoy was given a ministerial post. He also presided over the constituent national assembly that same year, which spread the constitutional text edited by Cornejo, and he established a new code of procedural criminal law.

In 1920, Cornejo was made a plenipotentiary minister in France and a permanent delegate at the League of Nations (LN). In November 1928 he became a Peruvian delegate at the IIIC. He advocated an internationalist vision of the Organisation of Intellectual Cooperation, claiming that “one had to liberate culture from excessive nationalism” (Luchaire, 1965). He therefore opposed the creation of an American Institute of Intellectual Cooperation in 1929, the Pan-American Institute, which he feared could result in a North American bias. Whilst in France, he was made a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour and was elected to the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences in February 1929. Between 1929 and 1930, Cornejo was also a member of the ICIC. He presided over the fourth International Congress of Sociology in 1930. In December 1930, the Peruvian author Ventura Garcia Calderón (1886–1959) replaced him as delegate at the IIIC. The following year Cornejo left his post at the ICIC to the Colombian writer Baldomero Sanín Cano. Cornejo died in Paris in 1942.

Costa du Rels, Adolfo

  • Person
  • 1891-1980

Adolfo Costa du Rels was born in Sucre, Bolivia, in 1891. After studying classics and law at the Sorbonne in Paris and spending time in the Bolivian mining regions, he entered the diplomatic service where he successively served in the following roles: attaché at the Bolivian embassy in France, chargé d’affaires in Chile, deputy in Bolivia, advisor at the Bolivian embassy in France, Bolivian delegate to the Pan-American Conference in Havana in 1928 (where he was rapporteur for the Havana convention on the protection of artists’ and authors’ rights), delegate to the IIIC, delegate to the General Assembly of the League of Nations (LN), Vice-President of the eleventh session of the Assembly (1930), and member of the Permanent Committee on Arts and Letters from 1931. He was appointed a plenipotentiary minister in Switzerland and at the Vatican between 1937 and 1943, then Bolivia’s ambassador to Argentina from 1943 until 1944. Between 1940 and 1946 he was the last President of the Council of the LN. After the war, he served as Bolivian Ambassador to France from 1948 to 1952 and, in 1973, as Ambassador to UNESCO.

Besides his diplomatic career, he wrote novels, short stories, dramas and essays. He was a regular contributor to the French journal Le Temps. In 1976, he received the Bolivian National Prize of literature. Costa du Rels died in 1980.

Council of Europe

  • Corporate body
  • 1949/05/05 -

“The Council of Europe was founded to promote European construction through a common democratic and legal area, structured notably around the European Convention on Human Rights” (Guide to the Archives of International Organizations).

It was founded on May 5, 1949, by 10 western European countries—Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. From the 1950s to the 1980s, these original members were joined by 13 others and with the demise of communist regimes throughout Eastern Europe at the end of the 1980s, the Council significantly expanded its membership (Encyclopedia Britannica).

“The Council of Europe addresses issues of common concern to its members, including human rights, crime prevention, drug abuse, environmental protection, bioethical issues, and migration. To manage these affairs, the council has devised more than 160 international agreements, treaties, and conventions that have replaced literally tens of thousands of bilateral treaties between various European states. Among the most important of its agreements are the European Convention on Human Rights (1950), the European Cultural Convention (1954), the European Social Charter (1961), the European Convention on the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment and Punishment (1987), the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (1995), and the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (1997). After the collapse of communism in eastern and central Europe in 1989–91, the council aided the countries of the region to overhaul their constitutions and legal codes and to democratize their political systems.” (Encyclopedia Britannica).

Curie, Marie

  • Person
  • 1867-1934

Maria Salomea Sklodowska was born in Warsaw in 1867. She began her studies at the Flying University, a clandestine Polish university that allowed women to study, before enrolling in the faculty of sciences in Paris in 1891 where she took up a degree in physics. In 1894, she joined Gabriel Lippmann’s laboratory for physics research, where she got to know Pierre Curie, an instructor at the School of Physics and Chemistry. The couple married the following year. Between 1895 and 1896, Marie Curie prepared her examination for the teaching of mathematics, then worked on her doctoral thesis on the study of the influences of uranium following the discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Röntgen in 1895. In 1898, together with her husband, she discovered polonium and, a few months later, radium. In 1900, Marie Curie began to teach physics education at the Ecole normale supérieure. In 1903 Marie Curie received, together with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel, the Nobel Prize in Physics. She was the first woman to receive this award, and went on to become the first woman to receive the Médailles Davy the same year.

At the Solvay Conference in 1911, she met future collaborators of intellectual cooperation, including Paul Langevin, Max Planck and Albert Einstein. She received her second Nobel Prize (in Chemistry) the same year, in recognition of her discovery of polonium and radium.

Known internationally, Marie Curie was much in demand and traveled a lot during her life. In 1922 when the ICIC was founded, she represented France alongside Henri Bergson at the Organisation of Intellectual Cooperation. However, Curie remained apolitical and neutral towards intellectual cooperation. In 1926, she suggested several projects for the field of scientific cooperation under the auspices of the IIIC: on 16 June 1926, for example, she proposed to form an international funding system for post-graduates and for gatherings of these scholars in their various research labs (“sur la question des bourses internationales, pour l’avancement des sciences et le développment des laboratoires”). In November 1926, she attracted the attention of the IIIC on the disadvantages of mixed scientific publications, i.e. academic journals bringing together several disciplines. She underscored the inconvenience this meant for specialised libraries and for researchers who had to buy entire volumes for individual articles, and she thus proposed to review the form of publications. In July 1928, she was elected Vice-President of the ICIC alongside Jules Destrée, with Gilbert Murray as President. In 1932 she presided over the interviews organised by the Committee on Arts and Letters in Madrid, published the next year under the title “L’Avenir de la Culture”. She worked for the ICIC until 1933.

Delors, Jacques

  • Person
  • 1925-07-20 –

Jacques Delors was born on 20 July 1925 in Paris. Already an economics graduate, he obtained the diploma of the Centre d’Etudes Supérieures de Banque (CESB) in 1950. From 1945 to 1962, he worked for the Banque de France. Then he became a member of the Economic and Social Council (France). At first chief officer for social affairs to the Commissariat Général du Plan from 1962 to 1969, he was next appointed general secretary of the Prime Minister for the “Formation Permanente et la Promotion Sociale”, a post he held until 1973. He taught at the Université de Paris-Dauphine as external instructor from 1974 to 1979 and at the Ecole Nationale d’Administration (ENA). During this period he was also a member of the General Council of the Banque de France, from 1973 to 1979, and joined the Parti Socialiste in 1974, and its Management Committee, in 1979.
His European career began in 1979 with his election as a Member of the European Parliament. There he was the chairman of its Economic and Monetary Committee until May 1981. From 1981 to 1984, he came back to French political affairs as Ministre de l’Economie et des Finances and as mayor of the town of Clichy, from 1983 to 1984.
From 1985 to 1995, he worked as President of the European Commission, within the European Economic Community (EEC) and then within the European Union (EU). At his instigation, on 14 June 1985, the Commission published the “White Paper”, the aim of which was to urge on the economic recovery, free movement and the establishment of a common market. From 1988 to 1989, he was the chairman of the committee responsible for studying the project of an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), resulting in the “Delors Report” which would contribute to the establishment of the Maastricht Treaty and of the euro. In 1995, he refused to stand in the French presidential elections whereas some people thought he might win them (
From 1993, he was engaged to draft another forecasting report as the chairman of the International Commission on Education and Learning for the Twenty-first Century. The Commission was created by the Director-General of UNESCO, Federico Mayor, on the invitation of the General Conference in 1991, for the purpose of bringing together contemporary ideas on education and gathering existing views on how education for the twenty-first century should be considered. It consisted of fifteen members from different career paths. The Commission adopted its final report in January 1996 and published it in April of the same year under the title: Learning: the treasure within. This new UNESCO “Delors Report” proposed an integrated and humanistic vision of education and offered a different approach from the dominant utilitarian, economic tone prevalent at that time, as Marie Cougoureux and Sobhi Tawil explain it in the article of Occasional Papers entitled “Revisiting Learning: the treasure within; assessing the influence of the 1996 Delors Report”. The Report became an international point of reference, especially regarding its definition of the four key pillars of learning: learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together and learning to be (Cougoureux and Tawil). Assuming the importance of lifelong learning, it was also considered to be utopist (Cougoureux and Tawil). Nevertheless it had a practical and decisive influence on the UNESCO program and on the orientation of educative development all around the world. Jacques Delors became the chairman of a team responsible for ensuring the follow-up of the reflections and recommendations expressed by the committee. In this framework, on 8-9 March 1999, a conference on lifelong education took place in Lisbon, organized by UNESCO and the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. Its proceedings are gathered in the publication: Learning throughout life: challenges for the twenty-first century.
Jacques Delors became President of the Administrative Council of the College of Europe from 1995 to 1999 and founded the European think tank “Notre Europe” in October 1996, led by him until October 2004, when he became its Founding President. With the aim of “Thinking a united Europe” from its very beginning, the association took the name “Notre Europe – Jacques Delors Institute” in 2012. From 2000 to 2008, he was the Chairman of the Council for Employment, Income and Social Cohesion (CERC – France).
He is also known for his commitment to Christian syndicalism. In particular, he has been a member of the French Confederation of the Christian Workers (CFTC) and of the think tank Vie Nouvelle.
He wrote several books, including: Social Indicators (1971), Change (1975), Get out or not (1985), L’Unité d’un Homme (1994), Mémoires (with Jean-Louis Arnaud – 2004), Investir dans le social (with Michel Dollé – 2009).
Currently he is considered to belong to the second generation of the founding fathers of Europe, those who were at the forefront of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and of the fight for a political union. His views and ideas regarding Europe continue to be disseminated by press. He received the title of Doctor Honoris Causa of 29 universities and several prizes and distinctions, among them the Treaties of Nijmegen Medal in March 2010.

Department of Mass Communication

  • Corporate body
  • 1945-1974

Un service de Mass Communication a été mis en place dès la formation de l’UNESCO en 1945. En 1947, il prend le nom de Mass Media avant d’adopter définitivement celui de Department of Mass Communication en 1950. Rattaché tout d’abord directement au cabinet du directeur général, il passe sous la direction du directeur général adjoint pour la communication en 1967. En 1974, il rejoint l’Office of Free Flow of Information and International Exchanges pour former le Department of Free Flow of Information and Development of Communication.
L’information des masses découle de la mission de l’UNESCO de développer la connaissance et la compréhension mutuelle entre les Nations. Pour ce faire, elle produit des contenus à travers différents médias qu’elle diffuse largement. A sa création, l’information des masses comprend trois domaines principaux : la presse, le cinéma et la radio, ainsi que des domaines secondaires tels que l’enregistrement sonore et la télévision. La presse ne regroupe pas seulement les quotidiens ou hebdomadaires d’information mais aussi les revues spécialisées. L’édition rentre aussi dans son champ d’activité. Par film, il faut entendre le film documentaire, le film éducatif et scientifique, le film destiné aux spécialistes et le film destiné aux spectacles. Le champ de la radio s’étend aussi bien aux nouvelles, à la propagande et à l’information générale qu’à la publicité, l’émission de variétés, l’enseignement, la science, l’art et le drame. L’information des masses a pour but de favoriser la circulation de l’information à travers le monde sur des sujets comme la paix, le progrès humain, l’éducation, la science et la culture. Le Department of Mass Communication cherche à la fois l’amélioration des moyens et des techniques d’information et la réduction des obstacles à la circulation internationale de l’information. Ainsi, de 1947 à 1951, il a réalisé une enquête sur l’état des moyens de communication dans nombre de pays membres. Il coopère sur ces sujets avec des organisations nationales ou internationales et organise des conférences entre des pays sur les sujets de communication.

Destrée, Jules

  • Person
  • 1863–1936

Jules Destrée was born in 1863 in Marcinelle, Belgium, into a bourgeois intellectual family. He was educated at Collège de Charleroi and Université Libre de Bruxelles, graduating with a doctorate in law in 1886, and began to practice as a lawyer in Charleroi. At the same time he began to frequent artistic circles and to write reviews for La Jeune Belgique. He started his political career in 1894, when he was elected a deputy to the House of Representatives. He sat as a member of the socialist party and was an advocate of Walloon interests. During the first world war he went into exile and conducted several diplomatic missions in Italy, Russia and China at the request of the Belgian government. From 1919 until 1921 he was Belgian Minister of Arts and Sciences. In 1920 he was elected to the Académie Royale de Belgique. He died in 1935, and in 1938 the Institut Destrée, a non-governmental organisation in support of Wallonia, was founded in his honour.

Destrée was a member of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) from 1922 until 1932. In July 1922, he suggested to form what became the IIIC, although he envisaged it to be in Brussels. He also served as President of the Belgian Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, and as Secretary of the International Museums Office (IMO). He was a member of the Sub-Committee on Arts and Letters from 1926. From 1932 he served as Chairman of the Permanent Committee of Arts and Letters at the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC). He held this position until his death in 1936.

Director General of UNESCO

  • Corporate body

The first Director-General of UNESCO was Julian Huxley. Since its inception, UNESCO had been headed by 10 Director-General, coming from the United Kingdom, Mexico, the United States, France, Senegal, Italy, Spain, Japan and Bulgaria. Since 2009, the Bulgarian Irina Bokova serves as UNESCO first female Director-General.

Drummond, Sir Eric

  • Person
  • 1876-1951

Eric Drummond, born in Fulford, England, in 1876, was a British diplomat. Coming from an aristocratic Scottish family, he studied at Eton College and entered the Foreign Office in 1900 where he successively served as private secretary to Prime Minister Herbert Asquith and then to Foreign Secretaries Edward Grey and Arthur Balfour. During the First World War he participated at the negotiations on the establishment of a League of Nations and in 1917 suggested a project entitled “Proposed Formation of the League of Nations to Secure the Maintenance of Future Peace”. Supported by Lord Robert Cecil, former British Prime Minister and advocate of the LN, Drummond was chosen as its first Secretary-General in April 1919. He held this post until 1933, when he was succeeded by Joseph Avenol. He subsequently became British ambassador to Italy. Upon his return to Britain in 1939 he occupied various positions in government ministries and the House of Lords. He died in 1951.

Drummond participated at the works of the ICIC and argued, in 1926, that it could be considered a permanent body of the LN, which was confirmed by the LN Assembly vote in September 1926.

Dufour Féronce, Albert

  • Person
  • 1868–1945

Albert Dufour Féronce was born in 1868 in London into an industrialist family. He entered the German Foreign Office in 1919 and served in various positions at the German embassy in London. From 1927 until 1932 Dufour Féronce was Under-Secretary General at the League of Nations (LN). In this position, he supported Gilbert Murray during the restructuring of the Organisation of Intellectual Cooperation (OIC) during 1930–1931. As director of the Bureaux Internationaux, he provided a link between the OIC and the Secretary-General of the LN. Dufour Féronce died in 1945.

Dupierreux, Richard

  • Person
  • 1891-1957

Richard Dupierreux was born in Couillet, Belgium, in 1891. He obtained a PhD in law from the University of Brussels in 1914 and went on to practice as a lawyer at the Brussels Court of Appeal. Between 1915 and 1918, he served as Jules Destrée’s private secretary during the latter’s missions to Italy and Russia. When Destrée became the Belgian Minister of Arts and Sciences, Dupierreux became his chief of staff between November 1919 and November 1921. In addition to this work, he pursued literary and journalistic activities in Belgium. Between 1920 and 1923, for instance, he directed the foreign policy section of La Nation. He also served as President of the Belgian Foreign Press Union from 1921 until 1923, and lead the arts, literary, and theatre section at the Le Soir, where he worked under the pseudonym Casimir. At the same time, he taught art history and civilisational history at the Institut supérier des Beaux-Arts in Antwerp. He died in 1957, having been elected to the Belgian Royal Academy the preceding year.

In the Fall of 1924, when Jules Destrée was considering creating a press section at the IIIC, he intended his collaborator Dupierreux to be head of the unit. In fact he became Chief of the Section for artistic relations in November 1925, and resigned from this position in December 1929. During this period, he served as Secretary of the Belgian Committee of Intellectual Cooperation which had been founded at the initiative of Destrée in 1922. Dupierreux was also involved in the International Museums Office’s (IMO) activities: he was a member of the preliminary committee in charge of the IMO’s first steps in autumn 1926 alongside Destrée, Henri Focillon, Julien Luchaire, George Oprescu, and Hélène Vacaresco. Between 1927–1929, he became coordinator at the IMO, before leaving the path to Euripide Foundoukidis who became Secretary-General of the Organisation in 1931. In 1937, Dupierreux helped with the preparation of the Belgian delegation to the second Conferences of National Committees of Intellectual Cooperation, organised by the IIIC, together with the Belgian Secretary-General of education Marcel Nyns and the president of the Belgian Committee Paul Hymans.


  • Corporate body


  • Corporate body


  • Corporate body

Einstein, Albert

  • Person
  • 1879-1955

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany, in 1879. He studied at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (today known as ETH), while also learning in a self-taught manner. Following difficulties in finding a research position, he worked as a private tutor. In 1901 he published his first academic article in Annalen der Physik. A year later, he was hired by the patent office in Berne, while at the same time pursuing his private studies of theoretical physics. In 1905, Einstein published his fundamental papers on molecular movement, on the radiance and the electrodynamics of moving bodies, which respectively became founding elements of atomic physics, quantum physics, and the theory of special relativity. The following year, he received his PhD in physics. His academic reputation rocketed: in 1909, he was awarded an honorary degree from the University of Geneva. In 1911, he was invited to the first Solvay Conference where he met Marie Curie, Max Planck and Paul Langevin. In 1914, Einstein became a member of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. One year later, he formulated the theory of general relativity and in 1916 he worked out a synthesis of the first version of quantum theory. In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

At the breakout of the First World War he adopted his pacifist attitudes and opposed German militarism. After the war he supported the Weimar Republic. At the request of his friend Walter Rathenau, Foreign Minister and advocate of a peaceful foreign policy, Einstein used his prestige for the service of pacifist causes. Henceforth he joined the efforts of the League of Nations and was among the first twelve members of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) when it was installed in 1921. However, shocked about Rathenau’s assassination on 24 June 1922, he sought to withdraw from politics and asked to withdraw from the ICIC. At the suggestion of Henri Bergson, Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was chosen to replace Einstein. In June 1924 amidst the Ruhr crisis, Einstein rejoined the ICIC, and stayed until 1932. After Einstein left the ICIC in 1932, his deputy, Hugo Andres Krüß, replaced him and stayed until Germany’s withdrawal from the LN. However, Einstein continued certain LN activities. In 1933, for example, the IIIC published an exchange of letters between Einstein and Sigmund Freud, entitled “Pourquoi la guerre?” In it Einstein defended the loss of national political sovereignty in favour of an international organisation in order to guarantee peace.

In 1933, Adolf Hitler’s rise to power forced Einstein to leave Germany, to avoid threats, and he decided to accept an invitation from the Institute of Advanced Study in Princeton, USA. On 2 August 1939, he wrote a letter to President Fanklin D. Roosevelt which helped to form the Manhattan project. After the Second World War, however, he tried to end atomic research, and fought for global atomic disarmament. He died in 1955 in Princeton.

Elmandjra, Mahdi

  • Person
  • 1933-03-13 - 2014-06-13

Mahdi Elmandjra was born 13 March 1933 in Rabat, Morocco. He started his high-school education at Lycée Lyautey in Casablanca in 1944 and received his Baccalaureate in 1948. He then went to Putney School, Vermont, USA from 1948 to 1950. Elmandjra obtained a B.A. in Chemistry and Political Science from Cornell University in New York in 1954, and a Ph.D. in Economics from the London School of Economics in 1957.

Elmandjra had a varied career, including the following positions. He worked as an assistant at the Faculty of Law in Rabat, Morocco from 1957 to 1958. Following this, he filled the position of Counsellor, Permanent Mission of Morocco to the UN in New York from 1958 to 1959.

From 1961 to 1963, Elmadjra worked at UNESCO as Chief of the Africa Unit in the Bureau of Relations with Member States, and from 1963 to 1966 he worked as Director, Executive Office of the Director-General. Between 1966 and 1970, he served as Assistant Director-General of Social Sciences, Human Sciences and Culture. He went on to work as Professor and Researcher at the Center of International Studies in London in 1970. Returning to UNESCO, Elmandjra served as Assistant Director-General for Pre-Programming from 1971 to 1975, and Special Adviser to the Director-General from 1975 to 1976. As Special Advisor, he was charged with studying the modalities of cooperation between UNESCO and the regional and national Arab funds, in particular with respect to the financing of operational activities.

After his career at UNESCO, he taught at the Faculté des Sciences Juridiques Economiques et Sociales, Université Mohamed V, in Rabat between the years 1976 to 1979. Subsequently he worked as Assistant Secretary-General, United Nations Development Programme, and he held the position of Special Consultant to the United Nations during the International Year of Disabled Persons from 1980 to 1981.

Elmandjra wrote extensively throughout his career, and several of his books have been translated into different languages. His many publications include: The United Nations System, 1973; No Limits to Learning (Report to the Club of Rome), 1979; Human Rights and Development, 1989; Islam and the Future, 1990; The First World Cultural War, 1991; Rétrospective des Futurs, 1992; Cultural Diversity Key to Survival, 1995; and Regionalization of Globalization, 2000.

Throughout his career, Elmandjra received several distinctions and awards, including: the Curzon Prize of French literature at Cornell University, 1953; the Rockefeller Award for International Relations, London School of Economics, 1955; the Order of Independence of the Kingdom in Jordan, 1959; the Chevalier de l'ordre des Arts et des Lettres , 1970; Prix de la Vie Économique, Paris, 1981; Grand Medal of the French Academy of Architecture, 1984; the Officier de l’ordre des Arts et des Lettres, France, 1985; Order of the Rising Sun (III), Japan, 1986; the Medal of Peace the Albert Einstein International Academy, 1991; and the Award of the World Future Studies Federation, 1995.

Mahdi Elmandjra died 13 June 2014.

Engida, Getachew

  • Person

"The new Deputy Director-General will be Getachew Engida, who is currently UNESCO’s Comptroller and Deputy Assistant Director-General for Administration. Mr Engida, of Ethiopia, has had a distinguished international career in auditing and financial management for prominent international companies and also worked for the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) as Assistant Comptroller. He joined UNESCO in his current position in 2004" (Press Release No.2010-43, UNESCO).


  • Corporate body
Results 201 to 300 of 1719