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Adiseshiah, Malcolm S.

  • Person
  • 1910-04-18 - 1994-11-21

Malcolm Sathianathan Adiseshiah was born in Vellore, India, on 18 April 1910. He earned a Bachelor of Arts in Economics from Loyola College in Madras in 1930, and then studied at King’s College, Cambridge University, and the London School of Economics, earning his PhD in 1940.

Adiseshiah began his career as a Lecturer in Economics at St. Paul’s College in Calcutta from 1931 to 1936. He then became Professor of Economics at Madras Christian College from 1940 to 1946. At this time, he was a member of the group of economists who developed the Ten-year Plan for the Industrialization of India. Adiseshiah moved to become Associate General Secretary at the World University Services in Geneva from 1946 to 1948.

Later in 1948, Adiseshiah began his career at UNESCO as Deputy Head, Exchange of Persons Service. He moved to become Head of the Technical Assistance Unit within the Office of the Director-General in 1950. After an organizational change, Adiseshiah was named Head of the new Technical Assistance Service. In 1952, the Service became the Technical Assistance Department and Adiseshiah became its Director. At the Eighth Session of the General Conference in Montevideo, the two posts of Assistant Director-General (ADG) were officially introduced and Adiseshiah was named Assistant Director-General along with Rene Maheu who had been provisionally appointed as such earlier that year. In addition to replacing the Director-General as needed, Maheu was responsible for the diplomacy of the Organization and Adiseshiah was to concentrate on the technical assistance programme, the integration of the technical assistance programme with the regular programme, and the coordination of administration of programme activities in general. Adiseshiah formally started as ADG at the start of 1955. The division of duties between the ADGs remained fluid. In 1960, Adiseshiah was said to be responsible for the administration and management of the Secretariat and for UNESCO’s field programmes. For the period 1960 to 1963, he was given the responsibility for helping newly independent countries of Africa. Adiseshiah was responsible for the development of the Karachi Plan for universal primary education for Asia and educational development and science plans for Africa and Latin America.

Again in the face of larger organizational change (departments becoming sectors with an Assistant Director-General at head as opposed to a Director), Adiseshiah was made Deputy Director-General (DDG) in 1963. In this role, in addition to replacing the Director-General as required, Adiseshiah was given special responsibility for coordinating organization-wide programme services relating to UNESCO’s work on the contribution of education in all its forms to economic development and for programme services relating to the direct relationship of science and technology to national progress. He also oversaw UNESCO’s cooperation with the United Nations Special Fund and was specifically charged by the Director-General to organize and direct a system of inspection of field activities. Adiseshiah served as DDG until his retirement from UNESCO at the end of 1970. For a period of five months in 1969, he also acted as interim Assistant Director-General of the Natural Sciences Sector. The Sixteenth Session of the General Conference in 1970 expressed its high esteem of Adiseshiah, noting that he had "served the Organization with unstinting devotion and energy, labouring untiringly, in particular, to advance the cause of development and international co-operation" (16 C/Resolution 0.9, 1971).

After his retirement, Adiseshiah was a member of the Tamil Nadu State Planning Commission. From 1970 to 1971, he founded with his wife the Madras Institute of Development Studies. He was the Institute’s first Director and remained Chairman of its Governing Council until his death. He was President of the Indian Economic Association from 1973 to 1974, President of the Indian Adult Education Commission, and a member of the Central Advisory Board of Education, the Indian Council of Social Science Research, and the National Council of Teacher Education. Beginning in 1975, Adisehiah was named Vice-Chancellor of Madras University. In 1978, he was nominated to the Rajya Sabha for a six-year term. He was President of the International Council of Adult Education. Adiseshiah served as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the International Institute for Educational Planning from 1981 to 1989. He also served as Chairman for the jury of UNESCO’s literacy prizes.

Adiseshiah died in Madras, India, on 21 November 1994. The UNESCO Malcolm Adiseshiah International Literacy Prize was created in 1998 from a contribution by India. The Prize was awarded annually from 1998 to 2001 for meritorious and effective contribution to the struggle against illiteracy. Among his many works, Adiseshiah published the books Let my country awake (1970) and It is time to begin (1972).

Almeida, Miguel A. Ozorio de

  • Person
  • 1890-1952

Miguel Osório de Almeida was born in Rio de Janeiro in 1890. He completed a degree in medicine at the University of Rio de Janeiro and obtained his doctorate in 1911. He occupied various posts during his career: Director of the laboratory at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Director of the animal biology Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture, Director-General of the National Health and Social Council, professor at the college of agriculture and veterinary medicine, as well as, professor and dean of the Rio de Janeiro State University. His works, notably in neurophysiology, earned him a global academic reputation, particularly in Europe. The Paris Academy of Medicine awarded him the Prix Sicard. He also received the Prix Einstein from the Brazilian Academy of Sciences. As a writer he published well-received essays, and he became the Secretary of the Brazilian Academy of Letters in 1936, Secretary-General from 1937–1945, and its president in 1949. He died in Rio de Janeiro in 1952.

Osório de Almeida participated at a large number of international scientific conferences. He was also involved in the “Correspondances” project, organised by the Permanent Committee of Arts and Letters in 1933, which was published as “Pour une Société des Esprits”. Osório de Almeida became a member of the Brazilian Committe of Intellectual Cooperation, before serving as its president between 1936 and 1946. In 1937, he presented a report on inter-American intellectual cooperation at the second Conference of National Committees of Intellectual Cooperation in Paris. He joined the ICIC in 1939. The National Committees of Intellectual Cooperation of the Americas continued to meet during the Second World War, and prepare in November 1941 for the IIIC to be transferred to an American country, or at least to create a provisional centre. It was also planned that Osório de Almeida direct an inter-American Committee of Intellectual Cooperation, a plan that was not fulfilled, however, owing to the US entry into the war.

In 1949, UNESCO signed a contract with Osório de Almedia for a detailed report with recommendations and suggestions on how to proceed with resolution 5.7 from the 3rd General Conference: " to continue preparations for the publication of books which will provide, for general and specialist readers, an understanding of the scientific and cultural aspects of the history of mankind, of the interdependence of peoples and cultures and of their contributions, including that of labour organizations, to the common heritage" (General Conference, 3rd session. 1948). Osório de Almedia submitted the report in August 1949 and it was circulated to member states.

Anesaki, Masaharu

  • Person
  • 1873–1949

Masaharu Anesaki (姉崎 正治) was born in Kyoto in 1873, son of a samurai in the service of Prince Kastura. After high school in Kyoto, he enrolled at the University of Tokyo (then Tokyo Imperial University) in 1893 to study philosophy. He wrote a dissertation in German entitled “Die Freiheitslehre Schellings” (Schelling’s doctrine of liberty). He specialised in religious studies and received his PhD in 1898. Two years later, he was appointed university professor at Tokyo.

Between 1900 and 1903 he went on a study trip to Europe, while pursuing religious and historical studies in Germany and Britain. In 1905, a chair of religious studies was especially created for him at the University of Tokyo. Following his visit to Europe, he focused on Buddhism and Christianity, while continuing his works in philosophy. In 1913 he published a Japanese translation of Schopenhauer’s The World as Will and Representation.

Between 1913 and 1915, Anesaki was a visiting professor at Harvard, USA. In 1919 he was invited to lecture at the Collège de France, Paris. His lectures were later published in 1921 as “Quelques pages de l’histoire religieuse du Japon.” The same year he participated as a Japanese delegate at the Pan-Pacific Congress of Education in Honolulu. A powerful earthquake destroyed the library and university of Tokyo in 1923. In response, Anesaki used his international reputation in order to find ways to reconstruct the buildings.

He continued to represent Japan at the Pan-Pacific Congress of Education alongside Nitobe Inazo (新渡戸 稲造), Under-Secretary General of the League of Nations between 1920 and 1928. In March 1933, Japan withdrew from the LN. Anesaki, however, became a member of the ICIC the following year and remained so until 1938. He was director of Kokusai Bunka Shinkokai (the Association for International Cultural Relations), to which the Japanese Committee of Intellectual Cooperation was attached in 1936. In July 1937, Anesaki participated in the interviews organised by the Permanent Committee on Arts and Letters as a member of the Japanese Committee of Intellectual Cooperation. The work was published in the following year under the title: “Le Destin prochain des lettres”. The same year, the IIIC published work by Anesaki entitled Art, life and nature in Japan. The Japanese government decided on 2 October 1939 to withdraw all experts working for the LN, and the Japanese Committee of Intellectual Cooperation stopped its activities on 1 April 1939. He died in 1949.

Appell, Paul

  • Person
  • 1855-1930

Paul Emile Appell, known as Paul Appell, was born in Strasbourg, France, in 1855 and died in Paris in 1930.

A graduate of l’Ecole normale Supérieure in engineering, he held the chair of Rational Mechanics at the Sorbonne from 1882 until 1913, when he succeeded Henri Poincaré as head of the department of celestial mechanics at the Sorbonne. He became President of the Academie des Sciences in 1914, then Rector of the University of Paris. He was also involved in the establishment of the Cité Universitaire campus for students in Paris.

As President of the Executive Committee of the French LN Association, he advocated the establishment of an international organisation, similar to the International Labour Organisation (ILO), and which would be concerned with global intellectual life. He was involved in the foundation of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC), and from 1927 until his death in 1930 he served as French delegate to the ICIC.

Ascher, Charles

  • Person

Charles Ascher served as professor of political science at Brooklyn College from 1949 to his retirement in 1966. He was also secretary and general counsel of the City Housing Corporation, builder of the experimental developments Sunnyside (Queens, N.Y.) and Radburn (New Jersey), founding executive secretary of the Public Administration Clearing House in Chicago, regional director of the National Housing Agency from 1942-1947 and executive officer for programs at UNESCO.

Avenol, Joseph

  • Person
  • 1879-1952

Joseph Louis Anne Avenol, better known as Joseph Avenol, was born in 1879 in Melle, France, and died in 1952 in Dulier, Switzerland. A high-ranking public servant at the French Ministry of Finance, he was finance expert at the French Embassy in London between 1916 and 1923. In addition to this work, he was appointed French representative to the Inter-Allied Food Council in 1916, and later in 1919 became a member of the Permanent Committee of the Supreme Economic Council.

As a financial expert on the French delegation he was sent to the economic and financial conferences at Brussels and Genoa, convoked by the League of Nations (LN) in 1920 and 1923 respectively. In February 1923, he became Under Secretary-General of the LN, succeeding Jean Monnet. In this capacity he tried to support the financial reconstruction of countries affected by the First World War. Henri Bonnet, future director of the IIIC, was his chief of staff during this time. On 1 July 1933, Avenol replaced Eric Drummond as Secretary-General of the LN. He resigned in August 1940.

Bandarin, Francesco

  • Person

"The new Assistant Director-General for Culture will be Francesco Bandarin of Italy. Mr Bandarin is currently Director of UNESCO’s World Heritage Centre, having taken up this position with UNESCO in 2000. As a specialist in architecture and urban planning, Mr Bandarin previously worked in both public and private institutions in the fields of built heritage, cultural heritage conservation, environmental heritage and cultural events, as well as architectural and urban design in developing countries. As Director of the World Heritage Centre, Mr Bandarin has led the development of a vast network of public private partnerships for World Heritage conservation, as well as the development of a series of regional category II centres in every part of the world" (UNESCO, Press Release 2010-043).

Banerjee, Debendra Nath

  • Person
  • 1895-?

Born in 1895, Debendra Nath Banerjee was an Indian economist and jurist, professor of political economy at the University of Calcutta and a member of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) from 1922 until 1923. He published extensively on Indian constitutional law and politics.

Bartók, Béla

  • Person
  • 1881-1945

Béla Bartók was born in 1881 in Nagyszentmiklós (today known as Sânnicolau Mare), Hungary. He gave his first concert at the age of six and went on to study music at Pressburg (today Bratislava) at the Conservatory in Vienna, and at the Royal Hungarian Music Academy in Budapest, where he became professor in 1907.

In addition to his educational career, he lead investigations into Hungarian, Rumanian, and Slovak folk music, and called for them to be recorded. His musical compositions earned him an international reputation and he embarked upon several worldwide tours during the 1920s.

In 1931, he joined the Permanent Committee on Arts and Letters of the IIIC. He was also a member of the Hungarian Committee of Intellectual Cooperation. Having emigrated to the United States in 1940, he died in 1945 in New York.

Behrstock, Julian

  • Person
  • 1917-1997

Julian Behrstock was a UNESCO staff member for 28 years until his retirement in 1976. He entered the Department of mass information in 1948 as responsible for the World Programme for Book development. He served as director of the Division of Free Flow of Information and the promotion of books and readership from 1967 to 1976.
Before arriving at UNESCO, Behrstock graduated from Northwestern University and worked as a newspaperman in Paris and later in U.S. Government service in London and Paris. In 1977, upon retirement from UNESCO, he won the International Book Award "for outstanding services to the cause of books".

Bekri, Chikh

  • Person
  • 1927-04-28 -

Chikh Bekri was born on 28 April 1927 in Geryville, Algeria. He obtained a License ès Lettres from the Université d’Alger and an Agrégation de lettres from the Université de Paris.

Bekri worked in Algiers from 1953 to 1958 as a Professeur at Lycée de Boufarik and Lycée Bugeaud. In 1960, he was named both Proviseur at the Lycée de Constantine and Director of the Collège universitaire de Constantine. In 1962, he was named Rector for the Region of Constantine. After independence, he was appointed Secrétaire général of the Ministry of Education of Algeria.

Bekri joined UNESCO in 1964 as Programme Specialist in the Education Sector, Operational Divisions, Arab States Division. He then moved to the Division of Educational Financing in 1968. During this time, he directed numerous missions for the development of education in Member States in the framework of the programme of cooperation with the World Bank. In 1973, he was appointed the first Director of the Regional Office for Education in the Arab States in Beirut. He served in this capacity until 1975 when he was appointed Acting Deputy Assistant Director-General of the Education Sector. In 1976, he was confirmed in his post as Deputy Assistant Director-General of the Education Sector, responsible for operations, but was also named Acting Director of the Executive Office of the Director-General. Indeed, later in 1976 he was named Director of the Executive Office of the Director-General. Bekri was promoted to the rank of Assistant Director-General in 1981 and, in 1982, in addition to his responsibilities as Director of the Executive Office, he was assigned responsibility for the coordination of services not-integrated into the sector structure, such as, for example, the Office of the Mediator and the Secretariats of the Governing Bodies. He was also responsible for liaising with regional coordinators and for the implementation of the decentralization policy. In the context of a broader reorganization, Bekri became responsible for overseeing the work of the new Bureau of Studies, Action and Coordination for Development as well in 1985. The following year, he was appointed Assistant Director-General responsible for the International Bureau of Education. He held this position until his retirement in 1987.

Some of his publications include: L’UNESCO : une entreprise erronée?, 1991; L'Algérie aux IIe/IIIe siécles (VIIIe/IXe), 2004; and, Le royaume rostemide : le premier état algérien, 2005.

Ben Barka, Lalla Aïcha

  • Person

"The new Assistant Director-General for UNESCO’s Africa Department will be Lalla Aïcha Ben Barka of Mali, who is currently the Deputy Executive Secretary of the United Nations’ Economic Commission for Africa. Ms Ben Barka was Director of UNESCO’s Regional Bureau for Education in Africa, from 2004-2007. In the course of her career, she has contributed to the development of the education systems of twelve West African countries, including her own, Mali. Ms Ben Barka has also collaborated with a number of foundations that work for African development, including the Mo Ibrahim Foundation and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada)" (UNESCO, Press Release 2010-043).

Bergson, Henri

  • Person
  • 1859–1941

Born in 1941 in Paris, Henri Bergson grew up in London and Paris, and studied at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris. Though initially interested in mathematics, his interest shifted to philosophy and classical studies. He received his doctorate in 1889 for a work on time and free will. In 1898 he became a tenured university professor at his Alma Mater, before being offered the chair of Greek philosophy at the Collège de France in 1900, a post that he held until 1921. In 1914 he was elected to the Académie Française, and in 1927 Bergson won the Nobel Prize in Literature (awarded in 1928). He died in 1941 after a long illness.

At the suggestion of Léon Bourgeois, Bergson became the inaugural President of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) in 1922 (Renoliet 1999, p. 23). He remained in this role until 1925 when he fell ill and resigned. He was succeeded by Hendrik Antoon Lorentz.

Bonnet, Henri

  • Person
  • 1888–1978

Born in 1888, Henri Bonnet was a French diplomat. A graduate of the École normale supérieure, he became a history teacher, and fought during the First World War. In 1919 he was in charge of the foreign policy section of the French radical daily L’Ère nouvelle. From 1921, he was Joseph Avenol’s chief of staff at the Office of the Assistant Secretary General, Joseph Avenol.

After Julien Luchaire’s resignation in 1930, Bonnet was appointed Director of the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) on 1 January 1931 for a period of seven years. His mandate was renewed for a second term. During his time as director, the IIIC launched the Entretiens series, one of the IIIC’s most visible projects, which gathered public intellectuals for interviews on a variety of topics and published the proceedings. Other projects included international collaboration on the teaching of history, popular arts, radio broadcasting, and libraries. In June 1940, at the instruction of the Quai d’Orsay, Bonnet transferred the IIIC staff to Guérande, then to Bordeaux. He then put Français Ristorcelli in charge of the administration and finances of the IIIC and appointed an interim committee for intellectual affairs, before leaving France to go to London and then to the US.

During the war, he served as vice-president of the ‘France forever’ committee between 1941 and 1943, became Information Commissioner on the Comité Français de Libération Nationale (CFLN), and later, between June 1943 and September 1944, he was Information Minister of the provisional French government (GPRF). In 1942, reflecting on his experiences as Director of the IIIC, he drew up plans for the future United Nations (Harley 1943). In 1944, Bonnet was appointed French Ambassador in Washington. Replaced as director of the IIIC by Jean-Jacques Mayoux in February 1945, he still participated at the London conference in November 1945 which put an end to the activities of the IIIC and saw the rise of the UNESCO system. Bonnet remained Ambassador in Washington until 1954. He died in 1978 in Paris.

Bonnevie, Kristine

  • Person
  • 1872-1948

Kristine Bonnevie was born in Trondheim, Norway, in 1872. A Zoologist, she was the first woman to be elected to the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters (1911), and the first woman to hold a professorship at the University of Oslo (beginning in 1912).

Bonnevie was a Norwegian delegate to the League of Nations (LN) in 1921. In this capacity, she assured that women would be included in the future International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC). When the ICIC was founded in 1922, she was one of the twelve original members. She defended an ICIC as international and as apolitical as possible. She supported reforms of the Organisation of Intellectual Cooperation in 1929, and she helped to draw up the program of the ICIC in 1930. That same year, she left the ICIC in order to devote her time to scientific research, but she remained a member of the Norwegian Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (founded in 1924). Bonnevie died in 1948 in Oslo.

Bose, Jagadish Chandra

  • Person
  • 1858-1937

Jagadish Chanra Bose was born in Mymensigh, Bengal (today Bangladesh), in 1858. At the age of nine he was sent to school in Calcutta. After graduating from the University of Calcutta he went to Great Britain in 1880. He took up medical studies and then studied physics at Cambridge. Once awarded his degree, he obtained a post as professor of physics at Presidency College of Calcutta. Between 1894 and 1900 he led pioneering work on electromagnetic waves. He then shifted his research focus to the study of plant physiology. In 1903 he was awarded a CBE. In 1912 he became a Companion of the Star of India (CSI). He retired in 1915, but remained an emeritus professor for the following five years. In 1916 he was knighted by the British government and the following year opened the Bose Institute, the first scientific research institute in India.

Bose was a member of the ICIC between 1924 and 1930. He worked on the establishment of an Indian Committee of Intellectual Cooperation beginning in 1925. It was, however, during the tenure of his successor, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan that this Committee was installed (1935–36). He died in 1937 in Giridih, Bihar.

Bourgeois, Léon

  • Person
  • 1851-1925

Léon Bourgeois was born in 1851 in Paris. After having fought in the Franco-Prussian war, he studied law at the Faculté de droit de Paris. He entered the civil service in 1876 and became a departmental prefect in 1887. The following year, he was elected to the Assemblée nationale. From 1890 until 1892 and again in 1892 he served as Minister of Education, where he introduced major reforms. He then assumed the office of Minister of Justice for two years. Having served in a number ministerial positions, Bourgeois was elected Prime Minister, and held office from November 1895 until April 1896. He served as Minister of Public Works in 1912 and 1917, as well as Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1914. Bourgeois died in 1925.

A member of the Radical-Socialist Party and a committed internationalist, Bourgeois participated at the 1899 The Hague Conference and in 1903 was appointed to the International Court of Justice. In 1907 he represented France at the Second Hague Conference. He was involved in the preparatory work for the drawing up of the League of Nations (LN) Covenant, and headed the French Association for the League of Nations. He represented France in 1919 at the LN.

At the suggestion of Bourgeois, Henri Bergson became the inaugural President of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) in 1922.

Castro, Aloísio de

  • Person
  • 1881-1959

Aloisio de Castro was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1881. He studied medicine in Rio de Janeiro, and, after having received a scholarship for a research trip to Europe, he obtained his doctorate in 1903. He practiced at the Medical School of Rio de Janeiro from 1904 until 1908, before becoming deputy health secretary at the social service in Rio de Janeiro (1906–08), professor of medical pathology and clinical medicine (1915–1940), Director-General of the School of Medicine (1915–1924), and director of the general department for education at the Brazilian Ministry of Education (1927–1932). De Castro also served as President of the Society of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Legal Medicine at the Brazilian Academy of Medicine. He was a member of numerous international medical associations. Beyond his scientific work, he published pieces of poetry as well as musical compositions for piano and choir.

De Castro was a member of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) from 1922 until 1930. In 1922 he founded the Brazilian Committee of Intellectual Cooperation, whose presidency he assumed in 1926 until 1933. He died in 1959 in Rio de Janeiro.

Cornejo, Mariano

  • Person
  • 1866-1942

Mariano Cornejo was born in Arequipa, Peru, in 1867. He studied law and political science at the National University of San Marcos in Lima. In 1896 he defended his doctoral thesis in political science. He practiced for several years as a lawyer. In 1896 he set up a chair of sociology at the National University of San Marcos. In 1897 he was elected as a democratic deputy and in 1901 he became President of the Chamber of Deputies. In 1905, Cornejo was made a plenipotentiary minister in Spain in order to defend Peruvian interests in the question of its borders with Ecuador. When the diplomatic negotiations failed, he returned to Lima where he again worked as a professor of sociology at San Marcos (1911). The following year, he was elected a Senator and occupied this function until 1918. He supported the coup d’etat of 4 July 1919 which brought Augusti B. Leguia the presidency of Peru, and Cornejoy was given a ministerial post. He also presided over the constituent national assembly that same year, which spread the constitutional text edited by Cornejo, and he established a new code of procedural criminal law.

In 1920, Cornejo was made a plenipotentiary minister in France and a permanent delegate at the League of Nations (LN). In November 1928 he became a Peruvian delegate at the IIIC. He advocated an internationalist vision of the Organisation of Intellectual Cooperation, claiming that “one had to liberate culture from excessive nationalism” (Luchaire, 1965). He therefore opposed the creation of an American Institute of Intellectual Cooperation in 1929, the Pan-American Institute, which he feared could result in a North American bias. Whilst in France, he was made a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour and was elected to the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences in February 1929. Between 1929 and 1930, Cornejo was also a member of the ICIC. He presided over the fourth International Congress of Sociology in 1930. In December 1930, the Peruvian author Ventura Garcia Calderón (1886–1959) replaced him as delegate at the IIIC. The following year Cornejo left his post at the ICIC to the Colombian writer Baldomero Sanín Cano. Cornejo died in Paris in 1942.

Costa du Rels, Adolfo

  • Person
  • 1891-1980

Adolfo Costa du Rels was born in Sucre, Bolivia, in 1891. After studying classics and law at the Sorbonne in Paris and spending time in the Bolivian mining regions, he entered the diplomatic service where he successively served in the following roles: attaché at the Bolivian embassy in France, chargé d’affaires in Chile, deputy in Bolivia, advisor at the Bolivian embassy in France, Bolivian delegate to the Pan-American Conference in Havana in 1928 (where he was rapporteur for the Havana convention on the protection of artists’ and authors’ rights), delegate to the IIIC, delegate to the General Assembly of the League of Nations (LN), Vice-President of the eleventh session of the Assembly (1930), and member of the Permanent Committee on Arts and Letters from 1931. He was appointed a plenipotentiary minister in Switzerland and at the Vatican between 1937 and 1943, then Bolivia’s ambassador to Argentina from 1943 until 1944. Between 1940 and 1946 he was the last President of the Council of the LN. After the war, he served as Bolivian Ambassador to France from 1948 to 1952 and, in 1973, as Ambassador to UNESCO.

Besides his diplomatic career, he wrote novels, short stories, dramas and essays. He was a regular contributor to the French journal Le Temps. In 1976, he received the Bolivian National Prize of literature. Costa du Rels died in 1980.

Curie, Marie

  • Person
  • 1867-1934

Maria Salomea Sklodowska was born in Warsaw in 1867. She began her studies at the Flying University, a clandestine Polish university that allowed women to study, before enrolling in the faculty of sciences in Paris in 1891 where she took up a degree in physics. In 1894, she joined Gabriel Lippmann’s laboratory for physics research, where she got to know Pierre Curie, an instructor at the School of Physics and Chemistry. The couple married the following year. Between 1895 and 1896, Marie Curie prepared her examination for the teaching of mathematics, then worked on her doctoral thesis on the study of the influences of uranium following the discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Röntgen in 1895. In 1898, together with her husband, she discovered polonium and, a few months later, radium. In 1900, Marie Curie began to teach physics education at the Ecole normale supérieure. In 1903 Marie Curie received, together with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel, the Nobel Prize in Physics. She was the first woman to receive this award, and went on to become the first woman to receive the Médailles Davy the same year.

At the Solvay Conference in 1911, she met future collaborators of intellectual cooperation, including Paul Langevin, Max Planck and Albert Einstein. She received her second Nobel Prize (in Chemistry) the same year, in recognition of her discovery of polonium and radium.

Known internationally, Marie Curie was much in demand and traveled a lot during her life. In 1922 when the IICIC was founded, she represented France alongside Henri Bergson at the Organisation of Intellectual Cooperation. However, Curie remained apolitical and neutral towards intellectual cooperation. In 1926, she suggested several projects for the field of scientific cooperation under the auspices of the IIIC: on 16 June 1926, for example, she proposed to form an international funding system for post-graduates and for gatherings of these scholars in their various research labs (“sur la question des bourses internationales, pour l’avancement des sciences et le développment des laboratoires”). In November 1926, she attracted the attention of the IIIC on the disadvantages of mixed scientific publications, i.e. academic journals bringing together several disciplines. She underscored the inconvenience this meant for specialised libraries and for researchers who had to buy entire volumes for individual articles, and she thus proposed to review the form of publications. In July 1928, she was elected Vice-President of the ICIC alongside Jules Destrée, with Gilbert Murray as President. In 1932 she presided over the interviews organised by the Committee on Arts and Letters in Madrid, published the next year under the title “L’Avenir de la Culture”. She worked for the ICIC until 1933.

Delors, Jacques

  • Person
  • 1925-07-20 –

Jacques Delors was born on 20 July 1925 in Paris. Already an economics graduate, he obtained the diploma of the Centre d’Etudes Supérieures de Banque (CESB) in 1950. From 1945 to 1962, he worked for the Banque de France. Then he became a member of the Economic and Social Council (France). At first chief officer for social affairs to the Commissariat Général du Plan from 1962 to 1969, he was next appointed general secretary of the Prime Minister for the “Formation Permanente et la Promotion Sociale”, a post he held until 1973. He taught at the Université de Paris-Dauphine as external instructor from 1974 to 1979 and at the Ecole Nationale d’Administration (ENA). During this period he was also a member of the General Council of the Banque de France, from 1973 to 1979, and joined the Parti Socialiste in 1974, and its Management Committee, in 1979.
His European career began in 1979 with his election as a Member of the European Parliament. There he was the chairman of its Economic and Monetary Committee until May 1981. From 1981 to 1984, he came back to French political affairs as Ministre de l’Economie et des Finances and as mayor of the town of Clichy, from 1983 to 1984.
From 1985 to 1995, he worked as President of the European Commission, within the European Economic Community (EEC) and then within the European Union (EU). At his instigation, on 14 June 1985, the Commission published the “White Paper”, the aim of which was to urge on the economic recovery, free movement and the establishment of a common market. From 1988 to 1989, he was the chairman of the committee responsible for studying the project of an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), resulting in the “Delors Report” which would contribute to the establishment of the Maastricht Treaty and of the euro. In 1995, he refused to stand in the French presidential elections whereas some people thought he might win them (France.fr).
From 1993, he was engaged to draft another forecasting report as the chairman of the International Commission on Education and Learning for the Twenty-first Century. The Commission was created by the Director-General of UNESCO, Federico Mayor, on the invitation of the General Conference in 1991, for the purpose of bringing together contemporary ideas on education and gathering existing views on how education for the twenty-first century should be considered. It consisted of fifteen members from different career paths. The Commission adopted its final report in January 1996 and published it in April of the same year under the title: Learning: the treasure within. This new UNESCO “Delors Report” proposed an integrated and humanistic vision of education and offered a different approach from the dominant utilitarian, economic tone prevalent at that time, as Marie Cougoureux and Sobhi Tawil explain it in the article of Occasional Papers entitled “Revisiting Learning: the treasure within; assessing the influence of the 1996 Delors Report”. The Report became an international point of reference, especially regarding its definition of the four key pillars of learning: learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together and learning to be (Cougoureux and Tawil). Assuming the importance of lifelong learning, it was also considered to be utopist (Cougoureux and Tawil). Nevertheless it had a practical and decisive influence on the UNESCO program and on the orientation of educative development all around the world. Jacques Delors became the chairman of a team responsible for ensuring the follow-up of the reflections and recommendations expressed by the committee. In this framework, on 8-9 March 1999, a conference on lifelong education took place in Lisbon, organized by UNESCO and the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. Its proceedings are gathered in the publication: Learning throughout life: challenges for the twenty-first century.
Jacques Delors became President of the Administrative Council of the College of Europe from 1995 to 1999 and founded the European think tank “Notre Europe” in October 1996, led by him until October 2004, when he became its Founding President. With the aim of “Thinking a united Europe” from its very beginning, the association took the name “Notre Europe – Jacques Delors Institute” in 2012. From 2000 to 2008, he was the Chairman of the Council for Employment, Income and Social Cohesion (CERC – France).
He is also known for his commitment to Christian syndicalism. In particular, he has been a member of the French Confederation of the Christian Workers (CFTC) and of the think tank Vie Nouvelle.
He wrote several books, including: Social Indicators (1971), Change (1975), Get out or not (1985), L’Unité d’un Homme (1994), Mémoires (with Jean-Louis Arnaud – 2004), Investir dans le social (with Michel Dollé – 2009).
Currently he is considered to belong to the second generation of the founding fathers of Europe, those who were at the forefront of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and of the fight for a political union. His views and ideas regarding Europe continue to be disseminated by press. He received the title of Doctor Honoris Causa of 29 universities and several prizes and distinctions, among them the Treaties of Nijmegen Medal in March 2010.

Destrée, Jules

  • Person
  • 1863–1936

Jules Destrée was born in 1863 in Marcinelle, Belgium, into a bourgeois intellectual family. He was educated at Collège de Charleroi and Université Libre de Bruxelles, graduating with a doctorate in law in 1886, and began to practice as a lawyer in Charleroi. At the same time he began to frequent artistic circles and to write reviews for La Jeune Belgique. He started his political career in 1894, when he was elected a deputy to the House of Representatives. He sat as a member of the socialist party and was an advocate of Walloon interests. During the first world war he went into exile and conducted several diplomatic missions in Italy, Russia and China at the request of the Belgian government. From 1919 until 1921 he was Belgian Minister of Arts and Sciences. In 1920 he was elected to the Académie Royale de Belgique. He died in 1935, and in 1938 the Institut Destrée, a non-governmental organisation in support of Wallonia, was founded in his honour.

Destrée was a member of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) from 1922 until 1932. In July 1922, he suggested to form what became the IIIC, although he envisaged it to be in Brussels. He also served as President of the Belgian Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, and as Secretary of the International Museums Office (IMO). He was a member of the Sub-Committee on Arts and Letters from 1926. From 1932 he served as Chairman of the Permanent Committee of Arts and Letters at the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC). He held this position until his death in 1936.

Drummond, Sir Eric

  • Person
  • 1876-1951

Eric Drummond, born in Fulford, England, in 1876, was a British diplomat. Coming from an aristocratic Scottish family, he studied at Eton College and entered the Foreign Office in 1900 where he successively served as private secretary to Prime Minister Herbert Asquith and then to Foreign Secretaries Edward Grey and Arthur Balfour. During the First World War he participated at the negotiations on the establishment of a League of Nations and in 1917 suggested a project entitled “Proposed Formation of the League of Nations to Secure the Maintenance of Future Peace”. Supported by Lord Robert Cecil, former British Prime Minister and advocate of the LN, Drummond was chosen as its first Secretary-General in April 1919. He held this post until 1933, when he was succeeded by Joseph Avenol. He subsequently became British ambassador to Italy. Upon his return to Britain in 1939 he occupied various positions in government ministries and the House of Lords. He died in 1951.

Drummond participated at the works of the ICIC and argued, in 1926, that it could be considered a permanent body of the LN, which was confirmed by the LN Assembly vote in September 1926.

Dufour Féronce, Albert

  • Person
  • 1868–1945

Albert Dufour Féronce was born in 1868 in London into an industrialist family. He entered the German Foreign Office in 1919 and served in various positions at the German embassy in London. From 1927 until 1932 Dufour Féronce was Under-Secretary General at the League of Nations (LN). In this position, he supported Gilbert Murray during the restructuring of the Organisation of Intellectual Cooperation (OIC) during 1930–1931. As director of the Bureaux Internationaux, he provided a link between the OIC and the Secretary-General of the LN. Dufour Féronce died in 1945.

Dupierreux, Richard

  • Person
  • 1891-1957

Richard Dupierreux was born in Couillet, Belgium, in 1891. He obtained a PhD in law from the University of Brussels in 1914 and went on to practice as a lawyer at the Brussels Court of Appeal. Between 1915 and 1918, he served as Jules Destrée’s private secretary during the latter’s missions to Italy and Russia. When Destrée became the Belgian Minister of Arts and Sciences, Dupierreux became his chief of staff between November 1919 and November 1921. In addition to this work, he pursued literary and journalistic activities in Belgium. Between 1920 and 1923, for instance, he directed the foreign policy section of La Nation. He also served as President of the Belgian Foreign Press Union from 1921 until 1923, and lead the arts, literary, and theatre section at the Le Soir, where he worked under the pseudonym Casimir. At the same time, he taught art history and civilisational history at the Institut supérier des Beaux-Arts in Antwerp. He died in 1957, having been elected to the Belgian Royal Academy the preceding year.

In the Fall of 1924, when Jules Destrée was considering creating a press section at the IIIC, he intended his collaborator Dupierreux to be head of the unit. In fact he became Chief of the Section for artistic relations in November 1925, and resigned from this position in December 1929. During this period, he served as Secretary of the Belgian Committee of Intellectual Cooperation which had been founded at the initiative of Destrée in 1922. Dupierreux was also involved in the International Museums Office’s (IMO) activities: he was a member of the preliminary committee in charge of the IMO’s first steps in autumn 1926 alongside Destrée, Henri Focillon, Julien Luchaire, George Oprescu, and Hélène Vacaresco. Between 1927–1929, he became coordinator at the IMO, before leaving the path to Euripide Foundoukidis who became Secretary-General of the Organisation in 1931. In 1937, Dupierreux helped with the preparation of the Belgian delegation to the second Conferences of National Committees of Intellectual Cooperation, organised by the IIIC, together with the Belgian Secretary-General of education Marcel Nyns and the president of the Belgian Committee Paul Hymans.

Einstein, Albert

  • Person
  • 1879-1955

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany, in 1879. He studied at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (today known as ETH), while also learning in a self-taught manner. Following difficulties in finding a research position, he worked as a private tutor. In 1901 he published his first academic article in Annalen der Physik. A year later, he was hired by the patent office in Berne, while at the same time pursuing his private studies of theoretical physics. In 1905, Einstein published his fundamental papers on molecular movement, on the radiance and the electrodynamics of moving bodies, which respectively became founding elements of atomic physics, quantum physics, and the theory of special relativity. The following year, he received his PhD in physics. His academic reputation rocketed: in 1909, he was awarded an honorary degree from the University of Geneva. In 1911, he was invited to the first Solvay Conference where he met Marie Curie, Max Planck and Paul Langevin. In 1914, Einstein became a member of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin. One year later, he formulated the theory of general relativity and in 1916 he worked out a synthesis of the first version of quantum theory. In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

At the breakout of the First World War he adopted his pacifist attitudes and opposed German militarism. After the war he supported the Weimar Republic. At the request of his friend Walter Rathenau, Foreign Minister and advocate of a peaceful foreign policy, Einstein used his prestige for the service of pacifist causes. Henceforth he joined the efforts of the League of Nations and was among the first twelve members of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) when it was installed in 1921. However, shocked about Rathenau’s assassination on 24 June 1922, he sought to withdraw from politics and asked to withdraw from the ICIC. At the suggestion of Henri Bergson, Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was chosen to replace Einstein. In June 1924 amidst the Ruhr crisis, Einstein rejoined the ICIC, and stayed until 1932. After Einstein left the ICIC in 1932, his deputy, Hugo Andres Krüß, replaced him and stayed until Germany’s withdrawal from the LN. However, Einstein continued certain LN activities. In 1933, for example, the IIIC published an exchange of letters between Einstein and Sigmund Freud, entitled “Pourquoi la guerre?” In it Einstein defended the loss of national political sovereignty in favour of an international organisation in order to guarantee peace.

In 1933, Adolf Hitler’s rise to power forced Einstein to leave Germany, to avoid threats, and he decided to accept an invitation from the Institute of Advanced Study in Princeton, USA. On 2 August 1939, he wrote a letter to President Fanklin D. Roosevelt which helped to form the Manhattan project. After the Second World War, however, he tried to end atomic research, and fought for global atomic disarmament. He died in 1955 in Princeton.

Elmandjra, Mahdi

  • Person
  • 1933-03-13 - 2014-06-13

Mahdi Elmandjra was born 13 March 1933 in Rabat, Morocco. He started his high-school education at Lycée Lyautey in Casablanca in 1944 and received his Baccalaureate in 1948. He then went to Putney School, Vermont, USA from 1948 to 1950. Elmandjra obtained a B.A. in Chemistry and Political Science from Cornell University in New York in 1954, and a Ph.D. in Economics from the London School of Economics in 1957.

Elmandjra had a varied career, including the following positions. He worked as an assistant at the Faculty of Law in Rabat, Morocco from 1957 to 1958. Following this, he filled the position of Counsellor, Permanent Mission of Morocco to the UN in New York from 1958 to 1959.

From 1961 to 1963, Elmadjra worked at UNESCO as Chief of the Africa Unit in the Bureau of Relations with Member States, and from 1963 to 1966 he worked as Director, Executive Office of the Director-General. Between 1966 and 1970, he served as Assistant Director-General of Social Sciences, Human Sciences and Culture. He went on to work as Professor and Researcher at the Center of International Studies in London in 1970. Returning to UNESCO, Elmandjra served as Assistant Director-General for Pre-Programming from 1971 to 1975, and Special Adviser to the Director-General from 1975 to 1976. As Special Advisor, he was charged with studying the modalities of cooperation between UNESCO and the regional and national Arab funds, in particular with respect to the financing of operational activities.

After his career at UNESCO, he taught at the Faculté des Sciences Juridiques Economiques et Sociales, Université Mohamed V, in Rabat between the years 1976 to 1979. Subsequently he worked as Assistant Secretary-General, United Nations Development Programme, and he held the position of Special Consultant to the United Nations during the International Year of Disabled Persons from 1980 to 1981.

Elmandjra wrote extensively throughout his career, and several of his books have been translated into different languages. His many publications include: The United Nations System, 1973; No Limits to Learning (Report to the Club of Rome), 1979; Human Rights and Development, 1989; Islam and the Future, 1990; The First World Cultural War, 1991; Rétrospective des Futurs, 1992; Cultural Diversity Key to Survival, 1995; and Regionalization of Globalization, 2000.

Throughout his career, Elmandjra received several distinctions and awards, including: the Curzon Prize of French literature at Cornell University, 1953; the Rockefeller Award for International Relations, London School of Economics, 1955; the Order of Independence of the Kingdom in Jordan, 1959; the Chevalier de l'ordre des Arts et des Lettres , 1970; Prix de la Vie Économique, Paris, 1981; Grand Medal of the French Academy of Architecture, 1984; the Officier de l’ordre des Arts et des Lettres, France, 1985; Order of the Rising Sun (III), Japan, 1986; the Medal of Peace the Albert Einstein International Academy, 1991; and the Award of the World Future Studies Federation, 1995.

Mahdi Elmandjra died 13 June 2014.

Engida, Getachew

  • Person

"The new Deputy Director-General will be Getachew Engida, who is currently UNESCO’s Comptroller and Deputy Assistant Director-General for Administration. Mr Engida, of Ethiopia, has had a distinguished international career in auditing and financial management for prominent international companies and also worked for the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) as Assistant Comptroller. He joined UNESCO in his current position in 2004" (Press Release No.2010-43, UNESCO).

Evans, Luther

  • Person
  • 1902-1981

Luther Evans was born in Texas in 1902. Specialist in political science and international relations, he organized and directed the Historical Records Survey for the Works Project Administration, before joining the famous Library of Congress. He served as adviser to the United States delegation from the second to the seventh sessions of the General Conference. He occupied a seat on the Executive Board with effect from 1949, before being appointed Director-General in 1953. He died in 1981.

Falt, Eric

  • Person

"The new Assistant Director-General for the Sector for External Relations and Cooperation will be Eric Falt of France, who is currently Director of the Outreach Division of the United Nations Department of Public Information. Mr Falt’s UN career as a spokesman and head of information services has taken him to many countries in post-conflict situations, including Cambodia, where he was spokesman for the United Nations Transitional Authority and Iraq, where he was in charge of information in the United Nations Office of the Humanitarian Coordinator for Iraq. He has also worked for the United Nations in Haiti, Pakistan and Kenya" (UNESCO, Press Release 2010-043).

Focillon, Henri

  • Person
  • 1881-1943

Born in Dijon, France, in 1881, Henri Focillon studied at the Ecole normale supérieure in Paris. After his diploma in classics he succeeded the art historian Emile Bertaux at the literature faculty in Lyon and was appointed director of the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Lyon, a post that he held from 1913 until 1924. In 1924 he succeeded Emile Mâle as chair of medieval art history at the Sorbonne, a post that he held until 1927. In 1933 he began a lecture series at Yale together with art historian Marcel Aubert.

In 1938 he was elected to the Collège de France and he accepted a chair at Yale university. He found himself in the US when the Second World War broke out and decided to stay. In 1940 he became a senior scholar at Harvard and he died in 1943 in New Haven. He published articles in the free French resistance journal, such as “Life of a Nation, 1919–1939” (1941), and his testimony for France, prefaced by General de Gaulle, was published posthumously in 1945.

Focillon played an active role in intellectual cooperation, particularly in the field of museums, popular arts and archeology. A member of the Sub-Committee of Arts and Letters at the IIIC, he proposed the creation of an International Museums Office (IMO) in April 1926. He explained the role that museums can play in the mutual understanding of cultures at the League of Nations (LN) Assembly in July 1926: museums could “facilitate more precise and rich knowledge of other peoples” through art.

When the IMO was created in July 1926, Focillon was a member of the Committee of Directors, a position that he held until July 1927. He thereafter pursued activities at the Sub-Committee of Arts and Letters at the IIIC, and played an important role in organising a congress for popular art in Prague (1928), as well as in the formation of the International Committee of Popular Art in 1929. In 1931 he co-founded together with Paul Valéry the Permanent Committee of Arts and Letters, which succeeded the Sub-Committee of Arts and Letters. In July of the same year, he suggested to the ICIC to create an international centre of institutions of archeology and history of art. This new institution was in fact founded in the same year and published a regular Bulletin.

Focillon remained a member of the Permanent Committee of Arts and Letters until the war, he participated in the publication of the interview and correspondence series by the IIIC during the 1930s which brought together famous intellectuals. In 1939, the IMO published a work on the problem of warheads, in which Focillon wrote an article alongside art historians Jurgis Baltrusaitis and Marcel Aubert.

Foundoukidis, Euripide

  • Person
  • 1894–1968

Born in Greece in 1894, Euripidi Foundoukidis was educated at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Internationales and the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales in Paris. He served as a delegate of the Greek government to the 1920 Congress of the Postal Union. For several years he worked as a civil servant and as editor at the Greek journal Phos. He also worked as cultural advisor to the Greek Embassy in Paris.

Foundoukidis joined the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) as an Attaché at the Section of Artistic Relations in January 1929, before becoming Secretary of the International Office of Museums (IOM) in April 1929. In 1931 he was promoted to Secretary-General of the IOM, a contract which was renewed in 1936 and lasted until September 1941, before the IOM became dormant during the war and Foundoukidis finally left the IIIC in 1946.

After he left the IIIC, Foundoukidis remained honorary director of the Hellenic society at the Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris. He was a Chevallier of the Legion of Honour. Foundoukidis died on 11 September 1968.

Fournier, Francine

  • Person

"Dr. Francine Fournier achieved her doctorate in political science at the University of Montreal. She taught at the political science departments of the Universities of Montreal and Quebec (Montreal). She was appointed Secretary of the Quebec Council on the Status of Women and later became President of the Quebec Human Rights Commission from 1979 until 1985. From 1988 to 1990, she was Secretary-General of the Canadian National
Commission for UNESCO. After her engagement with UNESCO she was President of the Multipartite national programme of reconciliation for the Orphans of Duplessis." (UNESCO, 2007, 60 Women..., p.282).

Giuliano, Balbino

  • Person
  • 1879-1958

Balbino Guilano was born in Fossano, Italy, in 1879. He completed his studies in philosophy and literature at the University of Turin, and went on to teach philosophy at Florence (1925–1930), Bologna (1931–1932), and Rome (1932–1935). He was Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature in Rome from 1935 until 1940. Besides his university achievements, he pursued a political career in the fascist movement. Having served as Secretary of State from 1924 until 1925, he became Minister of Education in 1929 and remained in this position until 1932. It was during his tenure that teachers at Italian universities saw the imposition of an oath of allegiance to the regime. In 1934 he became Senator. After the breakdown of the Fascist system, Guilano retired from political and university life and benefitted from the Togliatti amnesty. He died in 1958 in Rome.

Guilano repeatedly took part in activities of the Organisation of Intellectual Cooperation (OIC). In 1928, the Italian Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was founded, the members of which were elected on the proposition of the Education Ministry and with the consent of the Foreign Affairs Ministry: Guilano was elected President of this Committee in 1935. He was also appointed a member of the ICIC and President of the International Educational Cinematographic Institute in 1937. However, Italy’s withdrawal from the LN on 11 December 1937 put an end to Guilano’s activities at the OCI, as to those of all other Italian civil servants at the LN.

Gleditsch, Ellen

  • Person
  • 1879-1968

Ellen Gleditsch was born in Mandal, Norway, in 1879. After her pharmaceutical studies at Tromsø and Oslo, she worked as an assistant at the chemical laboratory at the Royal Frederick University in Oslo. She pursued her studies while working at the same time, and joined Marie Curie’s lab in Paris in 1907. While working with Curie, she also studied at Sorbonne and graduated with a degree in sciences in 1912. Together with Curie she conducted research on radium and uranium as well as their relationships with minerals. Her output earned her an academic reputation and allowed her to travel: for instance, invited by Yale University, she worked on the determining the half-life of radium. She also taught at Strasbourg, France, Budapest, Sophia, Bucharest, Glasgow, and a number of American universities.

In 1916 she received a teaching position in radiochemistry at the University of Oslo. In 1920 she was awarded the Nansen Prize in recognition of her achievements. In 1929 she became the second Norwegian woman to hold a professorship, after Kristine Bonnevie, and she took over the direction of the chair of inorganic chemistry, a post that she held until her retirement in 1946. In 1948 she received an honorary doctorate from Strasbourg, and in 1962 she was the first woman to receive an honorary doctorate from the Sorbonne. Gleditsch died in 1968 in Oslo.

Throughout her career, Gleditsch maintained close contacts to her professional colleagues from abroad. Between 1926 and 1929, she presided over the International Federation of University Women (IFUW). In January 1939, the ICIC appointed her as a member for the period of three years. However, her mandate ended with the termination of the ICIC’s activities at the outbreak of the Second World War.

Havet, Jacques

  • Person
  • 1919-07-30 -

Jacques Havet, a French national, was born on July 30, 1919 in Airaines, France. Havet studied at the Ecole Normale Supérieure and the Sorbonne, earning a Baccalauréat in Classics and Philosophy, a License in Philsophy, Physchology, Ethics, Sociology and Anthropology , as well as a Diplôme d’Etudes Supérieures and an Agrégation in Philosophie.

His career prior to joining UNESCO included the publication of “Kant and the Problem of Time,” translations of works of fiction, and contributed to the French press. During the Second World War, Havet’s father was a political deportee who was killed at Buchenwald concentration camp. In 1944, Havet was in charge of a mission in the cabinet of the Prefet of Liberation for Maine-et Loire. From May to November 1945, he served as head of the documentary film section for the Direction-Générale de la Cinématographie française. From November 1945 through May 1946, he was attached to the National Centre for Scientific Research.

Havet began his career in the Social Sciences and Philosophy Section of the Preparatory Commission of UNESCO in May 1946. After UNESCO formally came into existence, he served in a number of posts in the Department of Cultural Activities, including, in 1957, that of Chief of the Philosophy and Humanistic Studies Section. From 1957 to 1962, he was responsible for coordinating the Major Project on Mutual Appreciation of Eastern and Western Cultural Values. In 1963, he was made the first Director of the Office of the Director-General. Havet then took a special leave to pursue his philosophical research the following year, returning to the Secretariat in January 1967 as a consultant and Rapporteur général for the second part of the study on the Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences. After the completion of this work, Havet was appointed Director of the Department of Social Sciences in 1973. In the context of a larger reorganization of the sectors in 1975, Havet was named Deputy to the Assistant Director-General of the Social Sciences, Humanities and Culture Sector. The following year he was appointed Deputy Assistant Director-General of the newly created Sector for Social Sciences and their Applications. From November 1978 to August 1979, he acted as Assistant Director-General par interim. Havet was promoted to the personal rank of Assistant Director-General in May 1979 and retired from UNESCO in November 1980.

Herzog, Marie Pierre

  • Person

Marie-Pierre Herzog, a French national, joined the staff of UNESCO in March 1969 as Director of the Division of Philosophy. In 1973, she was made Director of the newly created Human Rights Coordination Unit. The Unit became the Division of Human Rights and Peace in 1975.

Hoggart, Richard

  • Person
  • 1918-09-24 – 2014-04-10

Richard Hoggart was born in Leeds, United Kingdom, on 24 September 1918. He studied at Leeds University from 1936 to 1940. His Masters of Arts thesis there was interrupted when he was drafted for service in the Second World War. After the war, from 1946 to 1959, he was a Tutor at University College, Hull, and then a Senior Tutor at Hull University. It was during this period that he published the work for which he is most known, The Uses of Literacy (1956). In 1959, he moved to the University of Leicester to accept a position as a Senior Lecturer in English. He became Professor of English at University of Birmingham in 1962 where he also became the first Director of the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies.

Hoggart was asked to be a member of the Culture Advisory Committee of the UK National Commission for UNESCO from 1966 to 1970. As such, he attended the 1966 and 1968 General Conferences as part of the UK delegation. He was also an observer at the 1969 Meeting of Experts to Prepare the 1970 Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies.

Hoggart joined UNESCO in February 1970, accepting an appointment as Assistant Director-General of Social Sciences, Human Sciences and Culture (SHC). During his tenure, the SHC Sector’s work included activities on: human rights and action against racism; population studies including activities for the World Population Year; the strengthening of social sciences in developing countries, including the establishment of regional social science centres; preparatory activities for the International Women’s Year; culture and environment studies; study of cultures; the General History of Africa; the series of regional Intergovernmental Conferences on Cultural Policies; continued international campaigns on the safeguarding of cultural heritage as well as the passing of the Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972); and, cultural development and the launching of an International Fund for the Promotion of Culture.

Hoggart wrote about his experience at UNESCO in the memoires ‘An Idea and its Servants: UNESCO from within’ (1978) and ‘An Imagined Life’ (1993), where he mentions in particular the impressions left by the missions he undertook. In ‘An Imagined Life’, Hoggart further writes about two key projects during the last period he was at UNESCO. For the first project SHC was charged with preparing the report 'The National education and the cultural life of peoples in the occupied Arab territories' that was requested by the 17th Session of the General Conference and presented to the 18th Session. The second project Hoggart references is UNESCO’s work on the preservation of the physical environment and cultural heritage of the Kathmandu Valley.

After his time at UNESCO, Hoggart became Warden of Goldsmith’s College, University of London. He held this post until his retirement in 1984. He also served on the Communications Advisory Committee to the UK National Commission for UNESCO from 1977 to 1979. Over the course of his career, he acted as a member or as an executive officer of many other committees, such as the following UK bodies: Governor, Royal Shakespeare Company (1962–1988); Arts Council of Great Britain (1976–1981); Chairman, Advisory Council for Adult and Continuing Education (1977–1983); and Vice-Chairman, Unesco Forum (1997-2008).

Hoggart died 10 April 2014.

Hrozny, Bedrich

  • Person
  • 1879-1952

Bedrich Hrozny (Bedřich Hrozný in Czech notation) was born in Lysá nad Labem, Bohemia, in 1879. He was employed at the Imperial University Library in Vienna starting in 1902. In 1904, in his capacity as an Assyriologist, he was involved in the excavations of Tell-Taannek in Palestine. The following year he was appointed professor of semitic languages and assyriology at the University of Vienna. His excellent knowledge of languages (Hebrew, Arabic, Ethiopian, Aramaic, Akkadian, Sumerian, Sanskrit, Persian, and cuneiform writing) allowed him to decipher the Hittite language in 1915. He also managed to demonstrate the Indo-European roots of that language, and he spread knowledge of the Hittite civilisation by publishing his research in German and French. Having been appointed university professor in Prague in 1919, he directed excavations in Sech-Saad and Tell-Erfad in Syria (1924–5) and at Kultepe in Turkey. It was at this last site that he discovered traces of Cappadocian handwritings as well as cuneiform characters, dated to the third millenium BC. He was consequently elected to the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres at the Institut de France in 1937. At the end of his life he attempted, without success, to decipher Hittite hieroglyphs, such as the writings of ancient India and Crete. He died 1952 in Prague.

In January 1939, Hrozny was elected a member of the ICIC for a period of three years. However, his mandate ended with the termination of the ICIC’s activities at the outbreak of the Second World War.

Huizinga, Johan

  • Person
  • 1872–1945

Born in 1872 in Groningen, Netherlands, Johan Huizinga grew up as the son of a professor of physiology. He went on to study Dutch literature, geography, history, as well as Sanskrit at the University of Groningen in 1891. He also studied abroad in Leipzig, Germany, before graduating with a PhD in 1897. Afterwards, he returned to the Netherlands to become a history teacher in Haarlem, then, from 1903 he lectured on Indian literature at the University of Amsterdam. From 1905 until 1915 he was professor of history at Groningen and in 1915 he became professor of history at Leiden, Netherlands, a post that he held until 1942. In response to his opposition to Nazism, he was interned by German occupation forces and lived under open arrest near Arnhem until his death in 1945.

A public intellectual, Huizinga was a member of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) from 1936 until 1939.

Hussein, Taha

  • Person
  • 1889-1953

Taha Hussein was an Egyptian writer, nicknamed the “Dean of Arabic Literature.” He was born in Maghāghah, Egypt, in 1889. Coming from a lower middle-class family, he became blind at the age of three owing to maltreatment by an unskilled practitioner. This dramatic incident and its consequence marked his life and influenced his work. For instance, he chose an Egyptian peasant as the main character of one of his novels (Du'â' al-Karawân, Curlew's Prayers, 1934), and his Al-mu‘azzabūn fi-l ardh (The Tortured of Modern Conscience, 1949) deals with the life of the lowly.

Hussein learnt the Koran by heart and became a Hafiz. At the age of thirteen he quit his home town to study in Cairo, first at the religious Al-Azhar University then at Cairo University founded by King Fuad I in 1908. In 1914 he received a public scholarship to study in France. He passed his examinations at Montpellier, where he learned French, Greek and Latin. Afterwards he studied at the Sorbonne and graduated in 1919 with a thesis on the social philosophy of Ibn Khaldoun. Upon his return to Egypt he was appointed professor at the University of Cairo.

In 1927 he published his autobiography, translated as An Egyptian Childhood in 1932. In 1931 he was elected Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Letters at Cairo University. Hussein was also founding Rector of the University of Alexandria. Between 1950 and 1952, he served as Education Minister and introduced free primary education as well as general reform of the education system. Afterwards, he returned to his literary and journalistic career and became President of the Academy of Arab language. He died in Cairo in 1973.

His commitment to education was also reflected in Hussein’s commitment to the Organisation of Intellectual Cooperation (OIC) of the League of Nations (LN). He played a vital role in the formation of the Egyptian Committee on Intellectual Cooperation which was founded in June 1937. He participated at the second general conference of national committees, held in Geneva in July 1937, where he presented a report on intellectual cooperation in the Arab world. He also contributed to the activities of the International Conference on Higher Education, organised by the IIIC in July 1937. In his capacity as a writer he also took part in the interviews organised by the Permanent Committee on Arts and Letters, published as “Le Destin prochain des lettres” (1938), in which he described the situation of literary men in the Orient, particularly in Egypt. Hussein was elected a member of the ICIC in 1939.

Huxley, Julian

  • Person

Julian Huxley, a British national, was born in 1887. He was a zoologist but also philosopher, educator and writer. He played a leading part in the creation of UNESCO. The pamphlet he published on taking up office, "UNESCO. Its purpose and Its philosophy", aroused impassioned but constructive controversy at the time. For almost twenty years (1950-1969) he was Vice-President of the International Commission for the History of the Scientific and Cultural Development of Mankind, and was particularly active in establishing a number of major non-governmental organizations. He died in 1975.

Joó, Rudolf

  • Person
  • 1946 - 2002/01/28

Born in 1946, Rudolf Joó earned a B.A. in International Relations from Budapest University of Economics (1969), a Ph.D. in Political Science from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1985), a Master’s degree in Public Administration from Harvard University (1991) and a Doctorate in Defence Studies from Budapest National Defence University (1999).

Joó held several academic posts, including Research Fellow at the Hungarian Institute for International Relations then Senior Fellow at the Budapest Institute for Central European Studies (1970-1980), Lecturer (1977-1988) in the Faculty of Law at Eötvös University, Budapest, Visiting Professor (1989-1990) of Political Science at University of Lyon "Lumières", Visiting Fellow (1994) at the Western European Union Institute for Security Studies in Paris, and Professor (1995-1997) of Political Science and Democratic Defence Management at George C. Marshall European Centre for Security Studies, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.

From 1991 to 1994, Joó served the Hungarian Government as Undersecretary of Defence. Appointed Deputy State Secretary for Multilateral Relations in the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1998, he was actively involved in the design and implementation of Hungarian initiatives within the framework of joint programmes launched by the Stability Pact for Southeastern Europe, relating to human rights, good governance, free media and gender equality issues. In 1999 he was appointed as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary and Permanent Representative of Hungary to the United Nations and other international organizations in Geneva, Switzerland.

Joó was a member of the Hungarian Delegation to the sessions of the UN General Assembly in 1998 and 1999. He was head of the Hungarian Delegation at the UNESCO General Conference in 1999; he also led his delegation at the OSCE-Mediterranean partners conference on the "Human Dimension of Cooperation" held in Amman, Jordan, in December 1999. As an active researcher, Joó notably co-directed a joint Hungarian-Slovenian research programme on minorities living in Hungary and Slovenia. He was also involved in a multinational assessment mission to West and Central Africa to assist democratic institution-building in civil-military relations. He collaborated with several international non-governmental organizations, think tanks and foundations concerned with peace, democracy and human rights. He was a member of the International Jury for the Robert Schuman Prize, the Hungarian National Committee "Justitia et Pax", the Comité Directeur du Centre international de Formation européenne and the Senior Advisory Council of George C. Marshall Centre for Security Studies. He published a number of books and journal articles on problems of multiculturalism and inter-ethnic coexistence, issues of international security and democratic defence management, including Hungary: a member of NATO (1999) and Report on the situation of the Hungarian minority in Rumania (1988).

Joó joined UNESCO on 2 April 2001 as the Director Division for Peace, Human Rights, Democracy and Tolerance in the Social and Human Sciences Sector. He died on 28 January 2002.

Kalonji, Gretchen

  • Person

"The new Assistant Director-General in charge of the Natural Sciences Sector will be Gretchen Kalonji of the United States of America. Currently Director of International Systemwide Research Development at the University of California’s Office of the President, Ms Kalonji’s international career in materials science and educational transformation has taken her to university positions in France, Japan and China. She has also worked with several African universities and is fluent in Kiswahili and Lingala. Ms Kalonji helped to establish a science and health initiative linking partners in East Africa with the University of California" (UNESCO, Press Release 2010-043).

Karklins, Janis

  • Person

"The new Assistant Director-General for UNESCO’s Communication and Information Sector will be Janis Karklins of Latvia. Currently Latvian Ambassador to France and Permanent Delegate to UNESCO, after an initial career in industry, Mr Karklins became the Permanent Representative of his country at the United Nations in Geneva. As a diplomat, he was closely involved in the preparation of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) and played a key role in its negotiations on internet governance. In 2006, Mr Karklins was elected president of the Government Advisory Committee of ICANN (Internet Corporation of assigned Names and Numbers), which plays a pivotal role in information society issues" (UNESCO, Press Release 2010-043).

Krüß, Hugo Andres

  • Person
  • 1879-1945

Hugo Andres Krüß was born in Hamburg, Germany, in 1879. After a degree in physics Krüß entered the Prussian Ministry of Culture and helped to prepare the German exhibition at the St. Louis World’s Fair 1904–5. Having served as captain during the First World War, he pursued a career in the Prussian Ministry of Culture: Councillor (1918), Assistant Secretary (1920), interim State Secretary (1921), and Chief of Staff at the Minister’s office (1922). In 1925 Krüß was appointed Director-General of the Prussian State Library (Generaldirektor der Preussischen Staatsbibliothek), though he had never worked previously in the field of libraries. Nevertheless, Krüß remained in this position until his suicide in 1945.

In support of international intellectual cooperation, Krüß served as Albert Einstein’s deputy at the ICIC. In 1926 he became a member of the Sub-Committee of Bibliography at the IIIC and participated, in his capacity as Director-General of the Prussian State Library, at the annual reunions organised by the IIIC on intellectual cooperation and library matters. Following Albert Einstein’s resignation in 1932, Krüß occupied his seat at the ICIC until 1933. Nazi Germany withdrew from the League of Nations (LN) on 19 October 1933, and a wave of resignations ensued among German LN officials, including Hugo Andres Krüß in November 1933.

Kutukdjian, Georges B.

  • Person
  • 1942-

Georges B. Kutukdjian, a Lebanese national, was born in Cairo, Egypt, in 1942. He pursued his higher education at the University of Paris, studying philosophy and social anthropology, earning the following degrees: license de sociologie; diplome d’études supérieures de philosophie; certificat de mathémathique; certificat de l’informatique. Kutukdjian was a Collaborateur with Professor Claude Levi-Strauss at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique of France from 1968 to 1971.

Kutukdjian began his career at UNESCO in 1972 as a Programme Specialist in the Division of Applied Social Sciences. In 1976, as the Sector was reorganized, he moved to the Division for the Study of Development. Kutukdjian was appointed Chief of the Evaluation and Coordination Unit, Office of the Assistant Director-General, Sector for Social Sciences and their Applications, in 1978. In 1985, he moved to become Programme Specialist in the Division of Human Rights and Peace. When the Bio-ethics Unit was created in 1992, Kutukdjian was appointed its Director. The Bio-Ethics Unit was moved to the Services attached to the Directorate in 1994. In 1999, the Unit was made the Division of Ethics of Science and Technology. Later that year, the Division was moved back to the Sector of Social and Human Sciences. Kutukdjian retired from UNESCO in 2001.

Beyond and complementary to his work at UNESCO, Kutudkjian held the following positions: President, UNESCO Staff Association, 1979-1982; Secretary-General of the International Bioethics Committee (IBC),1993-1997; Executive Secretary of the World Commission of the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology (COMEST), 1998-2001(?); Rapporteur of the IBC Drafting Group of the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data, 2003-2005; Member, Scientific Committee, International Bioethics Society; Adviser, French National Commission for UNESCO at the International Bioethics Committee, 2005; Vice-President and President of the Association of Former UNESCO Staff Members (AFUS), 2005-2010, as well as President of the AFUS History Club, 2005-2010. He was also recently one of the General Editors of the UNESCO World Report Investing in Cultural Diversity and Intercultural Dialogue (2010). Among other publications, he co-authored the book Rights of peoples (1991) and contributed to The Book: a world transformed (2001). Kutukdjian has taught seminars on diplomacy and international organizations (University of Paris-South) and in bioethics and biotechnologies (University of Versailles).

La Fontaine, Henri

  • Person
  • 1854–1943

Henri La Fontaine was born in 1854 in Brussels. He studied law the Free University of Brussels, from which he also received his doctorate, and was called to the bar in 1877. Following his studies he worked as a lawyer for the next sixteen years, specialising in public and international law. In 1893 he became professor of international law at the New University in Brussels. Two years later, he was elected to the Belgian Senate as a Socialist. He remained a Senator until 1936, acting as Vice-President of the Senate from 1919 until 1932. La Fontaine was a delegate to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 and to the first League of Nations (LN) Assembly in 1920–1921.

La Fontaine served as president of the International Peace Bureau from 1907 until 1943. In 1907 he founded the Union of International Associations (UIA) together with Paul Otlet, which among other things published a Yearbook of International Organisations since 1909. In 1913 he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his commitment in international law and cooperation.

In 1894, La Fontaine founded the Organisation internationale et collective du travail intellectuel. In February 1919, the UIA proposed a project for cooperation among intellectuals to the Paris Peace Conference, and in March 1919 the Belgian delegate Paul Hymans suggested to make this project part of the LN Covenant. La Fontaine continued to campaign for a representation of intellectual cooperation at the LN, and in August 1921 organised an international conference for intellectual workers in Bruxelles, planning to make the UIA a part of the LN system. While La Fontaine’s plan failed and the LN eventually founded its own organisation, La Fontaine remained an important source of inspiration and a correspondent of the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC). He also remained President of the International Peace Bureau until his death in 1943.

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